bakarariya

Yerma.

Yerma.

bakarariya ya zama tare da Bikin Auren Jini (1933) y Gidan Bernarda Alba (1936) bikin "Lorca trilogy". Wanda aka sake shi a cikin 1934, Federico García Lorca ne ya kira shi a matsayin babban mashahurin wasan kwaikwayo, - watakila - marubucin Sifen mafi mahimmanci na karni na XNUMX.

An gina shi a cikin ayyuka uku na firam biyu kowanne, ana ɗaukarsa ɗan gajere. Koyaya, ɗaukar sa yana da matsakaita na tsawon minti 90. Taken: bala'in kauye (mai matukar kyau a Latin Amurka yayin 1930s). Wanda aka haifa ɗan Granada ɗan wasan kwaikwayo yayi amfani dashi sosai don bayyana kansa a cikin Spain da yawancin Latin Amurka.

Federico García Lorca, marubucin

An haifeshi a 1898 a Fuente Vaqueros, Granada. Ofan dangi ne mai wadata, wanda ya ba shi damar girma a tsakiyar filin ba tare da wajibcin ci gaba da shi don tsira ba. Mahaifiyarsa ta ba shi dandano a cikin adabi - da fasaha gabaɗaya - tun yana ƙarami. Saboda wannan, yana da ma'ana cewa tuni ya balaga ya yi aiki tare da kyakkyawar ƙa'idar ladabi. Bikin Auren Jini misali ne bayyananne na shi.

Zamanin '27

Takaici saboda al'adun gargajiya na lardin, yayi nasarar zuwa Madrid da nufin ci gaba da karatun karatun sa a Mazaunin Studentalibai. Shafin da ake magana a kai cibiyar shahara ce, shahararrun mutane da masana kimiyya irin su Albert Einstein da Marie Curie suna yawan ziyarta.

Federico Garcia Lorca.

Federico Garcia Lorca.

A can ya zama abokai na kud da kud da Salvador Dalí da Luis Buñuel, a tsakanin sauran mashahuran mashahuran ƙasa da ƙasa.. Ta wannan hanyar, an samar da kyakkyawan yanayi na bohemian da yanayin ilimi don cikakken ci gaban mutum kamar mai kirkira kamar García Lorca. Kewaye da kwararrun masu fasaha; saitin da ya shiga cikin tarihi ƙarƙashin sunan Generation na 27.

Rayuwar da aka yiwa fascism

Amma shekaru goma na huɗu na karni na ashirin, kodayake ya yi aiki don fitowar mafi kyawun aikin Lorca, hakanan yana wakiltar ɗayan mafi ƙarancin lokacin a Spain. Don yakin basasar Sifen ya kawo hawan mai zuwa ga ikon Francisco Franco. Ko da yake Lorca ba a taɓa haɗa kai da kowane dalili na siyasa ba ko nuna bambanci ga abokai saboda dalilai na akida, ana ganinsa a matsayin barazana.

Ganin wannan yanayin, jakadun Colombia da Mexico sun ba shi mafaka, amma, bai yarda ba. A watan Yulin 1936 an kamashi kuma an kiyasta cewa an harbe shi da wayewar gari a ranar 18 ga watan Agusta (ba a san kwanan wata daidai ba). Daga cikin wasu abubuwa, an zarge shi da yin luwadi.

bakarariya, waƙa a hidimar wani bala'i

Idan wasan kwaikwayon García Lorca ya fito fili don wani abu, to saboda ra'ayinsu ne na waƙa. Tattaunawar, tare da kiɗa - waƙoƙin gypsy da yawa suna aiki a matsayin injin wannan aikin - saita saurin. Y, kama da sauran trilogy, farkon bakarariya yanki ne (da hali) cike da bege. Amma tarin takaici ya kawo karshen canza rayuwarsa zuwa mafarki mai ban tsoro na gaskiya.

Wannan zurfin zurfin yanayin a cikin ruhin mai gogaggen sa alama ce ta ci gaban aikin. Bugu da kari, yayin da rikice-rikice na makirci ke motsa rubutu, aikin yana bincika rikice-rikice irin na al'ummar Sifen. Ba tare da zama mai bayyana ra'ayi ba, yana kiyaye cikakken takamaiman nauyi ga (masu kallo) wuce su ba tare da sun sani ba.

Takaddama

- Yerma, fitacciyar jarumar wata mata ce wacce mahaifinta ya sanya mata aure a kan Juan, mutumin da ba ta so. Duk da haka, ba ya tsayayya. Wani sashi saboda shi mai gaskiya ne kuma daidai ne, an haɗe shi da ma'anar gaskiya. Bugu da kari, tana ganin a cikin wannan auren hanyar da za ta cika babban burinta: na zama uwa.

Amma bakarare (don haka, tare da farkon a ƙaramin ƙarami) kalma ce da ake amfani da ita don gano wani abu mara ƙarfi ko bushe. Don haka, lokaci ya wuce ... Yerma, mai gabatarwa ba zai iya daukar ciki ba. Bukatar ku ta ƙare zuwa juyawa sannan kuma ya ƙare ya saki masifar ƙarshe. Hukuncin rashin haihuwa da rashin dawwamamme.

Daga machismo, taron zamantakewar jama'a da (rashin) kerawa

Karkara Spain inda aka saita ta yanki yana da macho sosai. Juan, mijin Yerma, wakiltar haka kawai. Namijin da yake zaluntar matar sa ba da sani ba. Kawai saboda hakan shine yadda abubuwa suke aiki. A lokaci guda kuma abin ƙarfafawa ne kuma ya dace da matan da kansu.

Kalmomin daga Federico García Lorca.

Kalmomin daga Federico García Lorca.

Bugu da ƙari, a cikin yarjejeniyar zamantakewar da aka yarda da ita, babban aikin kowace mace shi ne yin hidima da haihuwa, in ba haka ba, an raina ta. Amma Juan kwanciyar hankali na rayuwa mai nutsuwa kuma ba tare da buƙatar yara ba ya bar shi ba tare da kerawa ba. Wato, ba tare da ainihin sha'awar rayuwa ba. Wannan rashin jin daɗin yana haifar da zalunci ga mai son bayyanawa, wanda yake rufe makomarsa.

Daraja farko, sannan sauran

Akwai hali na uku a tsakiyar rikici; Sunansa mai nasara ne. Ya kasance abokin Yerma tun suna yara. Hakanan, yana ɗaya daga cikin ma'aikatan Juan. Victor da Yerma sun kasance cikin soyayya har abada. Kasancewar kasancewar wannan ɗabi'ar tana haifar mata da daɗaɗɗen tunanin da ba za ta samu da mijinta ba. Ba ma a lokacin kusanci ba.

Kowane mutum a cikin gari ya ga irin shakuwa tsakanin Victor da Yerma. Mafi munin: koda don girmamawa da aminci sun rabu da soyayyarsu, matan suna fara yin raɗa game da cin amana. Sakamakon haka, zarge-zargen na masu hannu a ciki ba su da matsala ... an shuka asalin shakku.

Wani gwaji na aminci

A cikin aiki na uku, kusa da ƙarshen wasan, Yerma yana da damar guduwa tare da wani mutum - attajiri, mai aiki tukuru, cikin koshin lafiya - wacce zata iya bata duk abinda take so. Baya ga gida da aminci, ɗana-ɗana. Wannan tayin ya zo ne a aikin hajji, daga bakin "tsohuwa" (taken da García Lorca ya yi amfani da shi wajen gano mahaifiyar sabon dan takarar).

Amma Yerma bai tanƙwara ba, ya kasance mai ƙarfi a cikin ƙa'idodinsa kuma ya dace da ɗabi'unsa. Tana son haihuwa, sai tare da mijinta. Namijin da ya aure ta kuma wanda take raba gado na kusa da ita ... idan gefenta baya iya numfashi, to da alama bai dace ba.

Karshen Yerma

Yanayin ƙarshe na wannan yanki ɗayan ɗayan shahararrun lokuta ne a cikin wasan kwaikwayo na Sifen. Jarumar ta kashe mijinta ta hanyar shake shi yayin da yake kokarin mallakar ta. Tawayen wanda aka zalunta akan azzalumai, wanda sakamakonsa ba shine ake so ba.

Jerma na Yerma suna ihu a cikin filin cewa ita da kanta ta kashe ɗanta (saboda tare da mijinta kawai za ta iya samun sa) ba za a iya mantawa da shi ba ga duk waɗanda suka halarci wasan kwaikwayo. Bala'i a cikin tsarkakakkiyar sigarsa. Tare da ƙarfin da waka kawai a cikin harshen Sifaniyanci za ta iya bugawa. Maɗaukaki kuma mai raɗaɗi daidai gwargwado.


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