Littafin ɗan sanda

Christie Agatha.

Christie Agatha.

Littafin ɗan sanda mai bincike shine ɗayan sanannun nau'ikan adabi tare da mafi yawan mabiya a yau. Amma ba koyaushe haka yake ba. An haife shi bisa ƙa'ida a lokacin karni na sha tara - kusan daidai yake da labarin almara na kimiyya da soyayya - jama'a na lokacinsu ba su ga tagomashi ba. Kodayake, bayanin da ke sama ya fi na "yanayin yanzu" fiye da tabbataccen gaskiyar.

A zahiri, waɗanda suka ƙi irin wannan adabin sun kasance mambobi ne na (masu kiran kansu masu rubutun adabi) "babban jama'a." To tun daga farkonta labarin da masu karanta labarai da yawa suka cinye shi. Taron mutane maza da mata sun kasance cikin tarko labarai masu cike da lalata da ɓoye.

Asalin jinsin da aka yiwa lakabi mara kyau

Ga "malamai" - Tare da duk abubuwan da ake tuhumar su dasu a cikin wannan sifa - ya kasance "sub-Literature". Kayayyaki ba tare da sha'awa ba, an kirkiresu ne don nishadantar da talakawa. Babu wani abu mai amfani don haɓaka ruhun mutum. Kwatantawa, sake dubawar waɗannan "masana" sun yaba wa adabin almara na kimiyya kuma, sama da duka, soyayyar jarumtaka ta soyayya.

Laifi a matsayin fitaccen jarumi

Laifukan, kasancewar su jarumai ne na labarai, sun ta atomatik hana duk wani abu na son wuce gona da iri. Zato, ruhun (masu karatu) baiyi girma ba, bai canza ba ta hanya mai kyau. Akwai kawai damar isa ga jin daɗin ɗan lokaci mara lahani. Wannan nau'in sukar ya ci gaba sosai har zuwa Yaƙin Duniya na biyu.

Duk da haka - an yi sa'a ga marubuta na jinsi - ƙiyayya da sukar wallafe-wallafen lokacin ba za ta taɓa iya sanya babbar nasarar ta ta kowace hanya ba. Ko da yawa daga cikin waɗannan marubutan ba yau kawai ake gane su a matsayin haziƙai na gaske ba. A cikin rayuwa an yi bikin aikinsa sosai.

Kafin da bayan Auguste Dupin

Edgar Allan Poe.

Edgar Allan Poe.

Edgar Allan Poe Yana ɗaya daga cikin marubutan “waɗanda ba sa kan hanya”. Wataƙila ma'anar tana da ɗanɗano. Amma har yanzu lokaci ne mai ma'ana don ayyana girman aikin wannan mashahurin Ba'amurke. Kamar dai yadda rubuce-rubucensa suka kasance daga cikin gadon soyayyar Amurkawa, haka nan kuma ana yaba masa da asalin haihuwar litattafan laifuka.

Auguste Dupin shine farkon halayyar "ikon amfani da sunan kamfani" (tare da ma'anar kasuwanci a halin yanzu ake amfani da shi) na wallafe-wallafe. Bugu da kari, wannan jami'in dan sanda ya aza harsashin ginin da za a gina daya daga cikin shahararrun sunaye a adabin duniya: Sherlock Holmes. Ba tare da wata shakka ba, halin Sir Arthur Conan Doyle shine ba ƙari ba amma ga masu bincike da masu girmama abubuwan asiri.

Daga ƙasar Girka

Kodayake labaru tare da 'yan sanda "iska" koyaushe suna nan, Sophocles da Oedipus Rex ana iya la'akari da shi azaman tsoffin tsaran wannan nau'in makircin. A cikin wannan bala'in, dole ne fitaccen jarumin ya gudanar da bincike don warware matsalar rashin fahimta da gano mai laifi.

Ba zai zama ba har sai Laifukan titi (1841) lokacin da wannan nau'ikan ya samu sifa da halaye na "ƙaddara" Tabbas, labaran masu bincike sun samo asali tun daga lokacin. Amma daga ƙarshe duk masu binciken sun dawo Poe.

Janar fasali

Littafin ɗan sanda mai binciken ɗan adam koyaushe yana tare a gefen iyakoki, burgewa da firgici. Babban ma'anar wannan nau'in shine cewa a bayan kowane aiki (na laifuka) akwai guda ɗaya homo sapiens. Ba tare da taimako ko tilastawa daga aljannu ko halittun allah ba. A lokaci guda, makircin yana faruwa a cikin saitunan waɗanda masu karatu zasu iya gane su.

Jarumin jarumin shine wani wanda aka fifita shi da wayon sa, haka nan kuma iya karfin sa na lura da nazari dan magance matsalar enigmas. Duk haruffa - ban da mai binciken da mataimakansa, idan kuna da guda ɗaya - ana tuhuma. Sakamakon haka karatun ya zama tsere mai tsada daga bangaren masu karatu da nufin warware laifin a gaban mai binciken.

Amincewa sama da duka

Yakamata labari mai kyau ya zama mai laifi ya ɓoye mai laifin har zuwa ƙarshe. Amma ba tare da cikakken bayani dalla-dalla ba ko kwatancen kwalliya a lokacin ƙuduri. Idan Sherlock Holmes da kansa "ya hana kansa" to tsammani, duk wanda ya karanta labarinsa ya ɗauki babban haɗari yana ƙoƙarin annabcin ƙarshen.

Gangaren littafin yan sanda da wasu halaye

Lyananan, wallafe-wallafen masu binciken sun kasu kashi biyu manyan rukuni. Duk da cewa waɗannan ba su kaɗai ba ne, suna aiki ne a matsayin manyan fitila waɗanda ke jagorantar duk marubutan da ke ɗokin gabatar da tirinyukansu. A wannan bangaren, Ba kamar abin da ya faru da labarin soyayya ba, ƙetare ruwan Tekun Atlantika ya tashi daga Amurka zuwa Turai.

Makarantar Turanci

Arthur Conan Doyle ne adam wata.

Arthur Conan Doyle ne adam wata.

Da zaran Auguste Dupin da Edgar Allan Poe suka isa Landan, an kafa wata ƙungiya ko ƙaramar hanya da aka sani da Makarantar Turanci. Bayan Sir Arthur Conan Doyle da Sherlock Holmes, ɗayan mahimmin yanki a cikin wannan tsarin yana wakiltar Agatha Christie tare da halinta Hercule Poirot.

Wannan wani nau'i ne na labarin lissafi; na sanadi da sakamako. An gabatar da hujjojin ne bisa tsari, yayin da (kusan koyaushe) jarumar da ba za a iya magance ta ba ta shafi ƙari da ragi don isa ga sakamakon. Kudurin da - don fadin Holmes - shine "na farko." A bayyane kawai a idanun mai binciken; wanda ba za a iya misalta shi ba don sauran haruffa kuma ga mai karatu.

Makarantar Arewacin Amurka

A Amurka, har zuwa karni na ashirin, mafi mahimmanci "subgenre" an haife shi ne a cikin wallafe-wallafen 'yan sanda.. Har ma ana iya cewa shi kaɗai ne aka yarda da shi a matsayin wani ɓangare na wannan salon labarin: littafin laifin. Kamar yadda yake na biyu a halin yanzu ya bayyana yana adawa da salon mamaye har zuwa 1920s.

Kwatantawa tsakanin makarantu biyu na littafin yan sanda

Labaran Ingilishi sun yi salo. Mafi yawan lokuta makircin ya faru ne a cikin da'irar bourgeois. Saitunan sun kasance manya da kuma gidajen marmari, inda ƙidaya, iyayengiji da duchesses suka bayyana azaman waɗanda aka azabtar da masu aikata laifi. Laifukan sun kasance batun "babban al'umma."

Hakanan, ba tare da kasancewa mai girma biyu ba (Sherlock Holmes a ƙarshe ya bayyana wasu ɓangarorin halayen sa), haruffan Makarantar Ingilishi gabaɗaya. Jami'in tsaro mai kyau ne, mai gaskiya ne, mara lalacewa; miyagun mutane "sun munana", Machiavellian. Fada ce tsakanin nagarta da mugunta, gaskiya akan ƙarya, tare da ƙananan matakan rabi.

Duniyar gaske?

Littafin labarin aikata laifi ya dauki tarihin 'yan sanda zuwa "lahira", zuwa titunan unguwannin da aka fi rasa, zuwa mawuyacin yanayi, mahalli mai duhu. Dangane da haka, marubutan suna da sha'awar zurfafawa cikin iƙirarin masu aikata laifuka kuma suka fasa tunanin masu ba da labarin (masu binciken).

Ta wannan hanyar, "antiheroes" na adabi ya bayyana. Masu haruffa tare da gwagwarmaya mai rikitarwa, saboda - ban da fuskantar mai laifi - suna fuskantar al'umma da ruɓaɓɓen tsari. Sakamakon haka, kusan koyaushe suna yin aiki da kansu, ba tare da damuwa da halin kirkirar dabarun su ba. A gare su, ƙarshen ya ba da dalilin ma'anar.

Littafin aikata laifi da alaƙar sa da ƙiyayya tare da soyayya

Tare da littafin aikata laifi, laifuffuka sun daina zama "abu mai sauki", don a nuna shi ba tare da wata alama ta soyayya ba. Bugu da kari, makarantar Amurka ta tashi da shi matsayi, zama (mai rikitarwa) adabin Furotesta. Wanne ya zama - an ba shi yanayin tarihinta, shekarun da suka gabata da kuma bayan Babban Tashin Hankali - ainihin soyayya, a zahiri.

Mawallafa masu mahimmanci

Ba shi yiwuwa a fahimci littafin ɗan sanda ba tare da yin nazarin gudummawar Edgar Allan Poe, Arthur Conan Doyle, da Agatha Christie ba. Karatun da dole ne a fara yi da gangan (gwargwadon yadda zai yiwu). Ko kuma aƙalla ƙoƙari kada a ɗora sha'awar mutum a lokacin nazari. Wannan, ba tare da la'akari da ko abubuwan jin daɗin da aka karanta ta hanyar karatun suna da kyau ko marasa kyau ba.

The takwaransa, kuma da muhimmanci

Littafin ta'addanci wani bangare ne na asali na tarihin adabi. Tare da ƙari na yin rijistar asalin ɗan rikice-rikice kaɗan idan aka kwatanta da Makarantar Burtaniya (na littattafan bincike). Ga yawancin marubutan Amurkawa na dabaru wadanda suka wallafa labaransu a lokacin tsaka-tsakin, sun tayar da ra'ayoyi mabanbanta.

Edgar Allan Poe ya faɗi.

Edgar Allan Poe ya faɗi.

Mafi yawan masu sha'awar sun jaddada haɗarsu da gaskiyar. Madadin haka, da yawa suna tambaya game da rashin tsammani da rashin cikakkiyar ƙarshen farin ciki. Dalilin irin wannan ikirarin? Duk da sasanta laifin, mai laifin ba koyaushe yake samun hukuncin da ya dace ba. Daga cikin shahararrun marubuta a wannan rukuni sune:

  • Dashiell Hammlet, tare da jarumi Sam Spade (Falcon na Malta, 1930).
  • Raymond Chandler, tare da mai bincikensa Philip Marlowe (Madawwami mafarki, 1939).

Dan sandan "baya"

"Abu na yau da kullun" shine cewa ana lura da labarin ɗan sanda daga mahangar masu kyau. Koyaya, akwai "kishiyar siga": mugaye masu aiwatar da shirye-shirye don aikata mugayen ayyukansu kuma su kasance masu 'yanci. Misalin misali don kwatankwacin wannan ƙananan ƙananan shine Mai fasaha Mr. Ripley by Patricia Highsmith.

Tom Ripley, "yanayin ikon amfani da kyauta" na jerin litattafan, ba jami'in tsaro ba ne. Ya kasance mai kisan kai kuma ɗan damfara wanda yake nuna kamar waɗanda aka kashe. Idan a cikin "tsararren sigar" ta litattafan aikata laifuka shine manufar tona asirin, anan abun "mai ban sha'awa" shine lura da yadda ake gina karya. Wato, ma'anar ita ce ganin yadda mai laifi "ya kubuce tare da shi."

Nuevo Millennium

Stieg Larsson tabbas yana ɗaya daga cikin marubutan da suka fi kowane rikici. Ba don rubuce-rubucensa ba, amma don rayuwarsa. Koyaya, bayan bala'i da mutuwarsa ta farko, wannan ɗan jaridar ɗan Sweden ɗin yana da lokacin da zai fara amfani da ikon amfani da sunan ɗan sanda na farko a ƙarni na XNUMX. Labari ne game da Saga Millennium.

Salon fashewa

Mazajen da basa son mata.

Mazajen da basa son mata.

Kuna iya siyan littafin anan: Babu kayayyakin samu.

Mazajen da basa kaunar mata, Yarinyar mai dauke da ashana da gwangwan mai y Sarauniya a gidan sarauta—Duk aka buga a 2005— suna wakiltar dukkan aikinsa. Haɗin “bam” (waɗanda suka karanta waɗannan matani sun fahimci dalilin wannan kalmar) tsakanin salon Burtaniya na gargajiya da littafin aikata laifuka na Amurka.

Jami'an tsaro biyu sun kirkiro "kyakkyawan tushe" a cikin labaran Larsson. Sunayensu: Mikael Blomkvist (ɗan jarida) da Lisbeth Salander (ɗan fashin kwamfuta). Kamar yadda yanayi ya buƙaci, waɗannan haruffa na iya zama masu nazari da daidaito, da kuma matsowa da lalata.

Labarin 'yan sanda a cikin Sifen (wasu marubutan)

Littafin ɗan sanda mai bincike a cikin Spain da Latin Amurka ya cancanci wani labarin daban don samun damar yin sharhi akai. Daga Yankin Iberiya, ɗayan marubutan rubutu mafi kyau shine Manuel Vázquez Montalbán. Mai binciken sa: Pepe Carvalho, halayya ce mai kyakkyawar manufa kamar yadda yake zato; Ya fito daga ɗan kwaminisanci na matasa zuwa wakilin CIA, don ƙare a matsayin mai bincike na sirri.

Misalai daga Latin Amurka

A cikin Kolombiya, sunan Mario Mendoza ya fito fili, wahayi zuwa gare shi ta hanyar infernal da allahntakar Ubangiji karkashin kasa Bogota. Shaidan (2002) tabbas aikinsa ne na "asali". A ƙarshe, Norberto José Olivar ya kafa a Maracaibo, Venezuela, wani labarin ɗan sanda wanda ke iyaka da filayen kyawawan abubuwa.

Vampire a Maracaibo (2008), an buga shi a lokutan mafi yawan shahararrun littattafan da suka shafi samari masu tasowa. Jami'in tsaro a cikin wannan labarin - ɗan sanda mai ritaya - yana al'ajabi koyaushe game da wanzuwar ɓoyayyiyar duniya fiye da bayyane.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

Kasance na farko don yin sharhi

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