Ivanhoe na Walter Scott. Nazarin tarihi na labari

 

Hoton Walter Scott na Sir Henry Raeburn.

Yi magana game da marubucin Scotland Walter scott yana magana ne akan ɗayan manyan sunaye na Soyayya a Biritaniya. Ya fara gabatar da salo na littafin tarihi kuma ayyukansa sunyi nasara sosai a duk Turai. Ana ɗaukarsa ɗayan marubutan da suka fi tasiri kuma an mai da littattafansa a fim da talabijin a lokuta da dama. Ya kasance mawaki kuma edita. Kuma a cikin taken ƙwaƙwalwarmu kamar wannan an sassaka su Ivanhoe, Quentin duward, Pan fashin teku o Rob roy.

A yau na warke (kuma na dan sauƙaƙa) wani na kwalejin rubutu daidai game da Ivanhoe kuma na sake gauraya sha'awa biyu kamar adabi da tarihi. A wannan lokacin ya kasance batun batun Tarihi kuma ya kasance 1991, wanda aka faɗi ba da daɗewa ba. Can yana tafiya.

GABATARWA

Wannan shine littafin labari na farko wanda Scott yayi kokarin a musamman batun Turanci. Koyaya, ya kamata a lura cewa koda a cikin hanyar ba da halayyar tarihi ga aikin, marubucin da kansa ya yarda cewa ya ɗauki tabbaci yanci a cikin wannan ma'anar (cakuda almara da halayen haruffa). Ana nuna waɗannan a cikin ƙiyayya tsakanin Saxon da Normans a lokacin da ake magana, da kuma sauran bayanan muhalli. Wannan baya rage mahimmancin littafin labari, a'a Scottwarewar labarin Scott yana tabbatar da sha'awar mai karatu.

Zai yiwu mafi kyawun haruffa su ne masu kirkirarrun abubuwa kamar Ivanhoe, masoyin sa Uwargida jereena ko kyakkyawan Ibraniyanci Rebecca, 'yar Ishaku na York. Suna kuma Friar Tuck, jovial and fighter, or Wamba, mai aminci da kwazo jester na Cedric ɗan Saxon, Mahaifin Ivanhoe. Kuma kusa da su ya bayyana haruffa masu almara kamar shahararren Robin Hood da hakikanin kamar sarakuna da ‘yan’uwa Richard da Lionheart da Juan Sin Tierra, wanda ke ba da gudummawa don ƙara sha'awar labarin.

WURI DA CIGABA TARIHI

An saita wasan a cikin XII karni a Ingila karkashin mulkin Richard the Lionheart da gabatarwa jigogi guda hudu masu mahimmanci game da tarihi.

1.NOrmans da Saxon

Magana game da yaƙi tsakanin Norman da Saxon, wani rikici wanda ya bayyana tun daga farkon mamayewar tsohon a ƙasar ta ƙarshen, yana sanya wani nau'in rayuwa, yare da al'adu daban-daban. Misali mafi kyau na adawa ga wannan mamayar ana ganinsa a cikin yanayin Cedric ɗan Saxon a gaban sir Brian deBois-Guilbert.

Wannan baya faruwa da sarki Richard cewa, duk da kasancewa Norman, ji dadin sha'awa daga cikin talakawansa don shiga cikin yakin Jihadi. Ya kamata a lura, duk da haka, da natsuwa na wannan sarki wanda a tarihi bai taka muhimmiyar rawa ba kuma bai yiwa Ingila kyau ba musamman.

2. Jihadi

Haɗa tare da wannan, dole ne muyi la'akari da batun Jihadi, tunda banda Sarki Richard, haruffa biyu na almara suma sun shiga cikinsu: jarumar, Ivanhoe da Knights Templar kamar yadda aka ambata a baya Bois-Guilbert ne adam wata. Kuma dukkansu sun dawo ne a matsayin mahajjata daga kasa mai tsarki. Ya kamata a tuna cewa Jihadi sun samo asali ne daga kololuwar aikin hajji zuwa Urushalima, musamman zuwa Holy Sepulchre.

3. 'Yan uwan ​​Plantagenet

Wani batun kuma yana magana ne akan kishiyoyi tsakanin Juan Sin Tierra da ɗan'uwansa Ricardo. Don haka, a matsayin isharar tarihi, Ricardo I., dan Enrique II Plantagenet da Eleanor na Aquitaine, sun gaje shi a gadon sarauta bayan sun fuskance shi. Anan an wakilta shi azaman Black jarumi, wanda ba a bayyana ba har zuwa ƙarshe, lokacin da ya haɗu da mai ba da labari da abokansa don fuskantar ɗan'uwansa Juan.

Da rawar John Ba tare da Ƙasa ba a cikin labari shine na usurper na da gaskiya King Richard, gaskiyar da muke yabawa cikin damuwarsa game da barazanar Ivanhoe, tunda yayi yaƙi tare da Ricardo a cikin Jihadi.

4. Yahudawa a Zamanin Zamani

Halin da Ishaku na York shine wakilin irin wannan sanannen sanannen ajin zamantakewar kamar na Yahudawa da rawar da suke takawa a cikin rayuwar zamanin da, tunda wannan garin ya kasance ana tsanantawa duk Tsararrun Zamani saboda dalilai na tattalin arziki da na addini. A zahiri, mun haɗu da Ishaku na York, koma zuwa wani wuri mara kyan gani a teburin Cedric the Saxon a farkon littafin tare da mahajjata da ke zuwa tare da shi da kuma bayinsa.

Duk da haka, ikon ku da dukiyar ku ya baku damar samun wani matsayi a cikin al'umma kuma yana hulɗa tare da mutane masu tasiri ko yin lamuni. Misali bayyananne shine wurin gasar farko hakan yana faruwa kuma ta inda zaka ganshi kusa da Juan Sin Tierra da tawagarsa. Hakanan lokacin da ya ba Ivanhoe rancen domin mallakar makaminsa da dokinsa don shiga ciki.

Duk wannan yana nuna yanayin tarihin wannan lokacin game da wannan rukunin zamantakewar da kuma mallakinta a cikin al'amuran tattalin arziki, wanda da shi ne suka sami kyamar mutane.

SIFFOFIN TARIHI DA HALAYE

Bayan ya riga ya kira Sarki Richard da ɗan'uwansa John, da azuzuwan zamantakewa na wannan labari, mafi wakilcin Zamani na Tsakiya sune maza da talakawa.

da maza a nan suna taka rawar da ta fi dacewa kusan fiye da a zahiri, suna nuna ƙimar ɗan adam sosai. Misali, muna da Ivanhoe. Ba shi da halayyar aiki sosai, amma yana da daraja a cikin ayyukansa da halayensa kamar haƙuri da addini don jinyar da yake samu daga Isaac de York da 'yarsa kuma Ivanhoe yana yabawa ba tare da nuna wariya ba. Muna kuma da naka son yin sulhu tare da mahaifinsa, kodayake koyaushe yana shakka kuma yana nesa. Kuma tabbas akwai naka ƙarfin hali a yaƙi, da farko a cikin Jihadi sannan kuma a cikin kasarsa a kan masu kwace mulkin.

El mutane na gama gari, talakawa da al'adu zai zama misali da Wamba, koyaushe mai aminci ne ga ubangijinsa Cedric kuma daga baya ga Ivanhoe. Kuma ma ta Gurth, jester a cikin ikon yankin Saxon. Dukansu suna wakiltar dangantakar da ke tsakanin ɓarke ​​tsakanin ubangiji da bayinsa. Har ila yau misali ne bayyananne na gaba daya adawar mutane ga maharan.

HALAYE NA KWARAI

Su ne mafiya rinjaye kuma Scott yana amfani da su don yin aiki da gaskiyar tarihi tare da abubuwan kirkirarrun abubuwa waɗanda a lokaci guda suke haɓaka gaskiyar..

  • Ivanhoe shine daya motsa aikin, kodayake al'amuran da yanayin da ke tattare da shi abubuwa ne da ke daidaita ayyukansa.
  • Uwargida jereena shine halin mace m yayin da na Rebecca yafi yawa mai aiki. Anan ya zama dole a nuna rawar da mata suke takawa, tunda Rowena ita ce tsohuwar mace mai zamani yayin da Rebecca ta kasance mai kwazo a cikin labarin. Ba tare da zuwa gaba ba, shine dalili don aukuwa kamar yakin Ivanhoe na ƙarshe ta hanyar ceton ta daga fitina Me ake mata saboda zargin ta da mayya.
  • Cedric ɗan Saxon shi ne feudal lord par kyau, ban da halin karɓan baƙi, halin ɗabi'a, tare da tsayayyun ra'ayoyi da kuma kishin ƙasa.
  • Kuma kawai ya rage don lura da kasancewar Robin HuduKo kirkirarre ne ko a'a, mahimmancin sa ya dace. Abokantakarsa da Ivanhoe da Black Knight zai kasance da muhimmanci don yaƙar masu kwace da kuma sake dawo da gadon sarauta ga sarkinsu. Na biyun, lokacin da ya bayyana kansa, zai ba shi damar da yake da shi na dā don ya kasance da aminci ga ƙa'idodinsa.

GUDAWA

Walter Scott yana kulawa don farka tare da wannan aikin jama'a na sha'awar tsarin adabin tarihi a inda mafarkin sa yake amfani da albarkatun bincike na ilimi, yana haɓaka shi da baiwarsa a matsayin mai ba da labari. Yana sarrafawa don yin nuni da gaskiyar tarihi da aminci duk da faɗin ƙagaggen labari, amma an tsara shi sosai kuma an haɗa shi, sab thatda haka, da plausibility ne palpable.


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