Agnes da farin ciki

Ines da farin ciki.

Ines da farin ciki.

Agnes da farin ciki (2010) shine farkon na Labaran yakin basasa, wanda marubucin Spain mai suna Almudena Grandes ya kirkira. Saga wanda ya ta'allaka ne akan "gwagwarmayar neman 'yanci ta har abada" wacce ta taso a bayan yakin Spain har zuwa yau. Tsarin layin jerin yana bayanin sauye-sauyen siyasa, al'adu da tunani, wanda aka nuna ta hanyar haruffa uku na al'ummomi daban-daban.

En Agnes da farin ciki, marubucin ya yi amfani da salon bayar da labari tare da fasalulluka yayin da yake yin tunani a kan "dabi'un ko dabi'un da ke fuskantar wasu ''. A cewar Ingrid Lindström Leo (Mid Sweden University, 2012), Grandes suna amfani da waɗannan sifofin "don rarrabe tsakanin nagarta da mugunta, mai kyau da mara kyau". Sakamakon haka, rubutunsa sun haɗu da ainihin abubuwan tarihi tare da haruffa da halaye na almara. Domin ingantaccen labarinta da labarinta, wannan littafin yana cikin mafi kyawun Almudena Grandes.

Game da marubucin, Almudena Grandes

Almudena Grandes Hernández an haife shi a Madrid, Spain, a ranar 7 ga Mayu, 1960. Kafin sadaukar da kansa sosai ga adabi, ya kammala karatunsa a tsangayar ilimin kasa da tarihi a Jami'ar Complutense ta Madrid. Ta fara aikinta ne a cikin wasiƙu a cikin 1989 a matsayin marubuciya mai kwafa don encyclopedias. Bayan haka, sama da shekaru talatin, ya sami nasarar shiga cikin nau'ikan labarai, litattafan batsa, gajerun labarai, labarai da litattafai. Mace ce mai yawan tunani, Jumlolinsa suna cike da zurfin yabo.

Sakon ku na farko, Zamanin Lulu (1989) an sami nasarar edita, an fassara shi zuwa fiye da harsuna 20. Bugu da ƙari, Grandes ɗan jarida ne kuma marubucin allo; Sunansa yana da alaƙa da mashahuran kafofin watsa labarai kamar jaridar El País ko Kirtani SER. Agnes da farin ciki Ita ce ta takwas daga cikin litattafansa goma sha uku da aka buga har zuwa yau, a cikin jerin ayyukan da suka hada da sauye sauyen fim.

Yanayin tarihi da siyasa na aikin

Almudena Grandes ya sami wahayi ne daga mamayar kwarin Arán, Catalonia, don ci gaban gardamar Agnes da farin ciki. Rikicin soja ne wanda wasu 'yan kwaminisanci' yan kwaminisanci na kasar Sifen suka yi daga Faransa a lokacin faduwar shekarar 1944. A cikin wannan littafin, Grandes ya bayyana jigogi guda uku da suka ci gaba a rayuwarsa: zamanin da aka shiga bayan yakin, sauyawar kasar Spain, da matsayin siyasarsa ta hagu.

A cewar Santos Sanz-Villanueva (El Cultural, 2010), “Grandes ya wuce aikin soja da bai yi nasara ba har sai an mai da shi wani rukuni na wasu halaye waɗanda rikitarwarsu ke bayyana nuna yanayin wasu jaruman. Wannan ya kai shi ga gano tarihin yadda yake zuwa Jamhuriya da isa ga al'amuran yau da kullun ta hanyar bayanan mutum ".

Yan wasa (da masu kawo rahoto) na Agnes da farin ciki

Kodayake yaƙin yana da mahimmanci, galibin labaran na kunshe ne da gogewar wanda ya bayyana, Inés. Ta fito ne a matsayin babbar murya - a cikin mutum na farko - a cikin wani labarin da ke bayani dalla-dalla game da tafiye-tafiyen da 'yan mulkin mallaka na ƙasar Sifen da ke zaman talala a Faransa. A bangarori da yawa an aiwatar da labarin daga Fernando Garitano (wanda ake wa laƙabi da Galán), wanda ya zama mijin Inés.

Galán ya bayyana - haka ma a farkon mutum - salon rayuwar wasu haruffa na gaske na Jam'iyyar Kwaminis ta Sifen. Daga cikin su, Jesús Monzón Reparaz, Dolores Ibárruri (Pasionaria) da Santiago Carrillo. Akwai mai ba da labari na uku: marubuciyar da kanta, wanda ke ba da labarin abubuwan da suka faru kafin rayuwarta kuma ta gabatar da su da dumi, masaniya da aikatawa.

Babban Almudena.

Babban Almudena.

Salon labari

Grandes ba sa nuna cewa ba su da son kai ko kuma nazarin webs ɗin da suka gabata ba tare da sun shiga cikin motsin rai ba.. Akasin haka, yana bayyana bayanai (gaskiya da ƙage) azaman tsegumi game da alaƙar ma'amala da wasu sunaye na tarihi. Sabili da haka, ana ganin babbar sha'awa cikin lamuran soyayya na manyan jarumai, maimakon zurfafawa cikin ainihin abubuwan da suka shafi ƙasa da ƙasa.

Agnes da farin ciki rubutu ne mai tsayi kuma mai tsayi, cike da cikakken kwatanci, fi'ili madaidaiciya da labaran kayan haɗi. Wadannan mahimmancin iyaye - a ra'ayin masu suka kamar Nick Castior na Revista de Libros (2020) - na iya samar da sassan “karatun da ba shi da kyau”. A kowane hali, Grandes ya sami cikakken haske game da mutanen wancan zamanin, tare da al'adunsu, abubuwan da suka dace da matsalolin su.

Tsarin labari

Labarin ya kunshi wani abu ne tsakanin 1936 da 1949, koda yake ya kai har zuwa 1978. Movementsungiyoyin sararin samaniya suna ɗaukar mai karatu zuwa Madrid, Lérida, Bosost, Toulouse da Viella. Littafin ya kasu kashi huɗu: Kafin, Lokacin, Bayan da Kilos na Biyar na gudummawa, waɗanda suka haɗu da babi goma sha uku gaba ɗaya. Koyaya, layin layi ba na dindindin bane, saboda yawancin analepses, ellipsis, da prolepsis sun bayyana.

Yawancin shafuka suna wucewa tsakanin labaran da suka dace da lokacin mai gabatarwar a Toulouse. Ga masu nazarin ra'ayin adabin da ke da ra'ayin mazan jiya, yana wakiltar halayyar da ta saba wa almara ta gargajiya. Hakanan, an sake maimaita jawabin mai ba da labari a cikin maganganu masu ban sha'awa waɗanda ke nuna soyayya a matsayin jigon tattara labarin duka.

Takaitawa na Agnes da farin ciki

“A wannan daren, ya rubuta wasika, bayan mako guda, ya sake karbar wata, kuma washegari da safe ya zo ya shaida min cewa komai ya daidaita. Bai sami wata matsala ba game da shawo kan wani aboki daga garinsa, wanda yake da wayo sosai, da ya je gidan mai don siyan mai a farashin Fuensanteño, sannan ya nemi hanyar aika shi zuwa Madrid, daga inda wani abokinsa yake , kamar dai yadda shi, da kuma wani ma'aikaci a kamfanin sufuri, za su aiko mana da zaran ya sami rami a cikin babbar mota ».

Farawa a Madrid

Wata yarinya 'yar shekara 20, Inés Ruiz Maldonado, ta ba da labari daga masaniyar ta na masarauta yadda yakin basasa ya fara sauya rayuwar ta har abada. Ita kadai ce tare da mataimakiyar mata ta musamman a Madrid saboda dangin ta sun ƙaura zuwa San Sebastián don dalilai na kiwon lafiya. Bugu da kari, babban wansa, Ricardo, ya kasance memba na Falange na shekaru biyu kuma yana shiga cikin Sojojin.

Godiya ga mataimakan Virtudes, Inés ya sadu da Pedro Palacios, shugaban kwayar Hadaddiyar Matasan gurguzu (JSU). Pedro ya ƙaunaci Inés kuma ya shawo kanta don kafa hedkwatar taimakon agaji a cikin gidansa. A saboda wannan dalili, tana amfani da kalmar sirri da Ricardo ya bayar don shigar da aminci da zubar da ajiyar dangi.

Kasar da ta tsage daga zuciya

A zahiri, Ricardo yayi shirin ware kuɗaɗen da aka kiyaye don ba da gudummawar kuɗi ga Tawayen Kasa. Don haka, sau ɗaya dangi na kusa ya zama abokan gaba. Rarraba ƙirjin dangi yana nuna mummunan sakamakon yakin: “kainism”. Koyaya, bayan mutuwar uwa Ricardo, an tilasta masa ya kula da ƙanwarsa saboda alƙawarin da aka yi wa mahaifiyarsa.

Ricardo ya warware matsalolinsa na yau da kullun ta hanyar ba da hisar uwarsa don kula da matarsa, Adela. Amma, bayan cin amanar Pedro Palacios na Inés da Virtudes, duk suna ɗaure a Ventas kuma an yanke musu hukuncin kisa. Kawai sa baki a extremis Ricardo ya ceci Ines daga bango; Kyawawan halaye ba su da sa'a guda. A ƙarshen yaƙin, an shigar da Inés zuwa gidan zuhudu na ƙasar wanda sirikinta Adela ke jagoranta.

Guduwa

Amma kwanakin da ke cikin gidan zuhudu sun fara zama marasa jituwa saboda aboki na Ricardo, Comandante Garrido. Falangist din na cutar da Inés don matsayinta na jamhuriya. Saboda haka, Lokacin da Inés ta ji ta rediyo game da mamayar da Jamhuriya ta yi wa kwarin Arán, sai ta yanke shawarar tserewa. Harin ya fito ne daga Faransa, ya faru tsakanin 19 ga Oktoba 27 da 1944, XNUMX.

Duk da tsarin tsaron Francoist ya dakile harin 'yan tawaye, yawancin masu zagon kasa sun dawo Faransa ba tare da cutarwa ba.. A wancan lokacin, Galán ya fashe a matsayin mai ba da labari a yayin shirye-shiryen abin da ake kira "Operation Reconquista na Spain32". Bayan haka, Inés ta ci gaba da labarin daga ƙungiyar 'yan tawaye na Bosost, inda aka sanya ta a matsayin mai dafa wa sojojin jamhuriyar.

Kalaman marubuci Almudena Grandes.

Kalaman marubuci Almudena Grandes.

Toulouse

Inés ta zama fitacciyar mai dafa abinci, har ta kai ga ta sami kyakkyawan gidan abinci a Toulouse. Inés da Galán (Fernando Gaitano) sun ƙaunaci juna, sun yi aure kuma suna da yara guda huɗu. Tun daga wannan lokacin, Inés ta sadaukar da kanta don tallafawa iyalinta (da kuma taimaka wa sauran abokan aiki a cikin gwagwarmayar) ci gaba da nasarar kafa ta.

A halin yanzu, Galán a ɓoye ya dawo Spain a ɓoye na dogon lokaci don ganawa da 'yan uwansa kwaminisanci. Aikin Fernando ya maida hankali ne kan tattarawa da watsa bayanai game da halin da ake ciki a cikin kasar. A cikin Toulouse, gidan Inés ya zama wurin taro don haruffa na ainihi a cikin tarihi, daga cikinsu, Dolores Ibárruri (Pasionaria) da Santiago Carrillo.

Donuts kilo biyar

An kammala da'irar Inés ta inda aka faro ta, a Madrid, tare da mijinta da masu addinin sa. Mutuwar Franco a shekara ta 1975 ya ba da damar dawowar 'yanci da dimokiradiyya a Spain. Masu gwagwarmayar suna bikin ta hanyar cin ɗayan abubuwan Inés na musamman: donuts.

Yana wakiltar rufewa tare da wasu alamun annashuwa waɗanda aka haɗu tare da jin daɗi a ƙarshen mulkin kama karya. Jerin ƙarshe na littafin ya nuna isowa kan dokin Inés zuwa sansanin Bosost a cikin 1944. A wannan lokacin, an ɗora mata nauyin kilo biyar a cikin kwalin hat ... Adadin da ta yi alkawarin yi lokacin da aka 'yantar da Spain.


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