Hoton Dorian Gray

Littafin Hoton Dorian Gray.

Littafin Hoton Dorian Gray.

El Hoton Dorian Gray ita ce kawai littafin da Oscar Wilde ya wallafa. Ana ɗaukar ɗayan ɗayan rubuce-rubucen adabi mai rikitarwa a cikin karni na XNUMX. Ci gaban labarinta ya ta'allaka ne da wakilai uku na yaƙi tsakanin nagarta da mugunta da ke cikin kowane mutum, rigima ta musamman don 'yancin zaɓe. Wannan littafin ya ba da labarin tafiya ta ruhaniya na Dorian Gray, saurayi mai ban sha'awa wanda aka jarabce shi da tunanin samari da kyakkyawa na har abada.

Oscar Wilde koyaushe mai basira ne, kuma yayi amfani da kwarewar sa da kuma hadaka salo daban-daban na adabi wajen kirkirar wannan littafin. A cewar Svanhvít Helga Magnúsdótti daga Jami'ar Iceland (2011), a cikin riwayar akwai albarkatun almara na Gothic, kyan gani da kuma abubuwan kama da na Maɗaukaki na Goethe. Hakanan, nassoshi ga Tsohon Alkawari Littafin Farawa sun bayyana don ƙara girmamawa ga ɗabi'a don fuskantar tsakanin adalci da zunubi.

¿Hoton Dorian Gray o Hoton Dorian Gray?

Abu ne sananne a ga taken mara kyau «Hoton Dorian Gray ". Wannan hakika, saboda mutane suna rubuta shi yadda suke furta shi. Koyaya, kodayake jinsu bai gaza su ba, wannan ba ma'anar lafazin daidai a cikin sunan mahaifa ba, amma "Grey."

Rayuwar Oscar Wilde

Haihuwa da dangi

An haifi Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde a Dublin, Ireland, a ranar 16 ga Oktoba, 1852. Mahaifinsa shi ne Sir William Wilde, fitaccen likita mai aikin tiyata; mahaifiyarsa, marubuciya kuma marubuciya Jane Francesca Elgee (wacce ta sanya hannu a ƙarƙashin sunan) bege). Ya yi karatun firamare a Kwalejin Trinity a garinsu kuma bayan ya cika shekaru 20 ya shiga Kwalejin Magdalen da ke Oxford, Ingila, inda ya yi fice wajen samun kyakkyawan maki.

Matasa

Tun yana ƙarami, ya gina babban suna a matsayin ɗan wasa kuma a matsayin ƙwararren masanin magana. A cewar Øyvind Olsholt na tashar adabin skoletorget.no (2003), Wilde ya raina tashin hankali da wasanni. Wannan shi ne jin daɗin da aka nuna a cikin jumla ta gaba ta aikinsa Mace maras muhimmanci (1893):

"Manyan mutanen kasar Ingila suna ta tsalle a bayan wata dabba: abin da ba za a iya fada ba a yayin bin abin da ba za a iya ci ba."

Gidan zama na London

Ya zauna a Landan bayan kammala karatun jami'a. Tasiri da rubuce-rubuce kamar su babban mawaƙin Irish, WB Yeats, da uwar gidan Yariman Wales, Lillie Langtry, Oscar Wilde sun fara rubuta gajerun labarai, wasan kwaikwayo, da kuma waƙoƙi. Hakazalika, yayi aiki a cikin jarida kuma yayi tafiya a kan hanyar karatu zuwa Amurka (Douthat da Hopson a ciki Hoton Dorian Gray, 2002).

Ayyukan farko

Littattafansa na farko sun kasance waƙoƙi ne marasa kyau. Koyaya, ba da daɗewa ba ya sami yabo don wasan kwaikwayo na ban dariya. Na farko, Vera; ko, masu nihilists, fara a 1880. An bi ta gabatarwa na The Lady Windermere fan (1892), Mace maras muhimmanci (1893), Miji nagari (1895) y Muhimmancin zama na yau da kullun (1895), shahararren wasan kwaikwayon wasan kwaikwayo. A cikin 1884, Oscar Wilde ya auri Constance Lloyd, wanda ya haifa masa yara biyu.

Abin kunya game da Hoton Dorian Gray

A lokacin bazara na 1890, fitowar farko ta kawai littafin da Oscar Wilde ya rubuta ta bayyana a cikin Mujallar Monthly ta Lippincott, Hoton Dorian Gray. Littafin ya sami kakkausar suka game da abin kunya da lalata, wanda ya haifar da bita tare da karin bayanin gabatarwa da sabbin surori shida. Tare da wannan gabatarwar, Wilde yayi ƙoƙari ya hango kuma ya mai da martani ga masu sukar da suka lakafta aikin nasa a matsayin "tatsuniyar lalata."

Hakanan, gabatarwar a taƙaice tana gabatar da ƙa'idodin wani nau'in falsafar fasaha: ƙawancin mutum, bayyanuwa - wanda Wilde ya tabbatar - tare da mahimmin ƙima. Matsayi ne na neman sauyi a cikin Ingila na Victoria, dangane da kyawun fasaha ba tare da wata manufa ta ɗabi'a ko siyasa ba. A cikin gabatarwar, Wilde ya kuma shawarci masu karatu da kar su nemi ma'anonin "a ƙarƙashin" fasaha.

Oscar Wilde ne adam wata.

Oscar Wilde ne adam wata.

Wani labari mai matukar wadata shine nau'ikan adabi

Hoton Dorian Gray haɗuwa ne da sassan littafin Gothic, sassan ban dariya, da kuma nune-nunen wasan kwaikwayo game da alaƙar fasaha da mutunci. Sakamakon haka, ba makawa a tada - aƙalla - rashin jin daɗi tsakanin masu sauraro na Victoria, saboda wannan dalili, gabatarwar Wilde ta yi gargaɗin cewa "bambancin ra'ayoyi game da aiki ya nuna cewa wannan aikin sabo ne, mai sarkakiya kuma mai mahimmanci."

Buga na biyu da badakalar da ta haifar

Kaddamar da bugu na biyu (1891) na Labarin Dorian Gray hakan yayi daidai da haduwar farko tsakanin Oscar Wilde da Lord Alfred Douglas (wanda ya kira shi da suna "Bosie"). Lokacin da Marquis na Queensberry - mahaifin ubangiji - a fili ya soki lamarin, wani rikici ya barke wanda ya ƙare tare da fitina a cikin 1895 game da "mummunan lalata."

Kotu tayi amfani Hoton Dorian Gray a matsayin shaida saboda yawan wurarensa tare da abubuwan luwadi. An wulakanta Wilde a fili kuma aka yanke masa hukuncin shekaru biyu na aikin bautar. A wannan lokacin, ya rubuta Lord Alfred wata doguwar wasiƙa mai raɗaɗi mai taken Na profundis (Zurfin ciki, A cikin latin). Bayan ya gama hukuncinsa, ya bar Ingila.

Shekarun ƙarshe na Wilde

Pya kwashe shekarunsa na karshe yana rayuwa cikin talauci tsakanin Italiya da Faransa. A cikin 1898 ya yi wallafe-wallafen wallafe-wallafensa na ƙarshe (a ƙarƙashin sunan ɓoye), Ballad din Kurkuku, waka game da yadda fursuna yake ji game da wani wanda za a kashe.

A ƙarshe, Oscar Wilde ya mutu daga cutar sankarau a ranar 30 ga Nuwamba, 1900., a cikin Paris. An canza shi zuwa Katolika na Katolika a kan gadon mutuwarsa.

Takaita Hoton Dorian Gray

Basil da kyawun da ba zai yiwu ba na Dorian

Yayinda yake gidan mahaifiyarsa - Lady Brandon - mashahurin mai fasaha Basil Hallward ya hadu da Dorian Gray. Wannan saurayi ne mai ladabi da wadata wanda aka bashi "kyawu mara kyau" wanda nan da nan ya kama tunanin mai zane. Saboda wannan dalili, Dorian yana zaune don a nuna shi sau da yawa. Basil na sha'awar sa kamar dai shi wani gwarzo ne na almara ko mutumci na Girka.

A farkon labarin, mai zane yana kammala hoton farko na Dorian kamar yadda yake. Amma (ya yarda da abokinsa Lord Henry Wotton) zanen bai gamsar da mai zanen ba saboda ya bayyana sosai yadda Basil yake ji da Dorian. Lord Henry - sananne ne game da girgiza abokansa ta hanyar yawan bikinsa na samartaka, kyakkyawa, da son kai na son nishaɗi - bai yarda ba, yana mai gasgata hoton ya zama babban gwaninta.

Ubangiji kaji

Lokacin Dorian ya bayyana a cikin binciken, Basil ya gabatar masa da wata alama ta yin murabus ga Lord Henry. Basil yayi imanin cewa Lord Henry na iya zama mummunan tasiri ga saurayin Dorian Zaton ya tabbata ne kawai a tattaunawar farko, inda Ubangiji Henry ya ɓata wa Dorian rai tare da kyawawan tunaninsa game da ƙarancin kyawawan abubuwa da ƙuruciya.

Farkon tsinuwa

Bayan haka Dorian ya la'ance hotonsa saboda damuwa don bayyanar da zata shuɗe tare da shudewar lokaci. Cikin tsananin damuwa, yayi alƙawarin ransa ga hoto kawai wanda zai iya kaucewa mummunan tasirin shekaru. kuma hakan zai baka damar zama matashi har abada. Basil, a cikin ƙoƙari na faranta masa rai, ya ba shi wannan hoton.

Bayyanar lalata ga jiki da bayyanar Sibyl

A cikin makonni biyu masu zuwa, tasirin Ubangiji Henry yana ƙaruwa. Saurayin ya mika wuya ga "sabon hedonism" kuma ya tashi don gudanar da rayuwa mai kwazo don neman gamsuwa ta jiki. A waɗannan lokutan, Dorian ta ƙaunaci Sibyl Vane, matashiyar 'yar fim da ke yin wasan kwaikwayo a cikin siliman na ƙauyukan talakawan London. Dorian na son wasan kwaikwayon sa, ita, a cikin sakamako, ta kira shi "mai ladabi mai ladabi."

A wancan lokacin, James Vane - ɗan'uwan Sibyl - ya ƙi yarda da ci gaba da haɓaka kuma ya nace cewa Dorian ba mutumin da ya dace da ita ba ne. Duk da haka, Sibyl yana dauke da motsin rai. Ta yi watsi da maganganu marasa kyau game da Dorian kuma ya yanke shawarar daina yin wasan saboda ba ya son ya sake yin wani abu a dandalin, saboda "yanzu yana jin wani abu na gaske."

Hutu da sasantawa mara yuwuwa

Abun takaici, aiki shine ingancin da Dorian ke so game da ita, sabili da haka, ƙare alkawarin a hanya mafi munin. Bayan rabuwar, Dorian ya dawo gida kuma ya lura da canji a hoton da Basil ya zana: yanzu ya yi murmushi tare da raini.

Tsoron halin rashin daɗi bayan halayen rashin lafiyarsa da zunubinsa wanda zane mai zane ya nuna, ya yanke shawarar yin sulhu da Sibyl washegari.

Amma barnar da ba za a iya gyarawa ba, da rana mai zuwa Lord Henry ya sanar da Dorian cewa Sibyl ya kashe kansa. A cikin hanzarin Ubangiji Henry, Dorian ya yanke shawarar ɗaukar mutuwa a matsayin babban nasara na fasaha, inda ta keɓance bala'i kuma ya bar duk wani baƙin ciki. Tabbas, Dorian ya yanke shawarar ɓoye hotonsa a wani ɗaki a saman gidansa don ɓoye canje-canje daga wasu.

Dorian "sabon littafi mai tsarki"

Daga baya, Lord Henry ya ba Dorian a hannunsa littafi mai dauke da bayanin karkatattun bayanan gonakin wani dan kasar Faransa dan karni na XNUMX. Wannan rubutun ya zama "sabon littafi mai tsarki" na Dorian. Sakamakon haka, sai ya yanke shawarar tsunduma cikin rayuwa mai kunshe da zunubi da lalata, ba tare da nadama da mizanan ɗabi'a ko kuma sakamakon ayyukansa suka haifar ba. Umurnin kawai shine tara abubuwan kwarewa masu ban sha'awa.

Oscar Wilde ya faɗi.

Oscar Wilde ya faɗi.

Passagearshen lokacin rashin bege da lalacewar Dorian

Shekaru goma sha takwas sun shude. Sunan Dorian ya tabarbare a cikin zamantakewar Landan saboda jita-jita ba kakkautawa game da mummunan ɗabi'arsa da rashin gaskiya. Duk da komai, masu martaba sun ci gaba da yarda da shi saboda ya kasance saurayi kuma kyakkyawa. Kodayake fuskar da ke cikin zanen a cikin hoton tana kama da busasshe da kuma kazanta.

Basil, sabon fasalin hoton Dorian da mutuwa

A wani dare mai duhu da hazo, Basil Hallward ya zo gidan Dorian don fuskantar shi game da jita-jita game da mutuncinsa. Sun fara jayayya. A wancan lokacin, Basil ya lura da ruɓar ruhun Dorian, wanda ya nuna masa mummunan hoton.

Mai zanen ya roƙe shi ya sake tunani. Amma Dorian ta yi ihu "lokaci ya yi da za a tuba" kuma, a cikin fushi, ya kashe Basil. Don kawar da gawar, Dorian ya ba da rashawa kuma ya nemi taimako daga wani likita mai ban mamaki. Washegari, Dorian ya nufi wani dakin ajiyar kaya, inda ya sadu da James Vane, wanda ke ƙoƙarin ɗaukar fansa saboda mutuwar ƙanwarsa Sibyl. Dorian ta sami nasarar tserewa zuwa gidan kasarsa. A can, ya sake ganin James yana kallo ta taga yayin da yake hidimar wasu baƙi.

Nadamar Dorian da "canji"

Dorian ya sake firgita da tsoro da laifi. Kodayake wannan jin yana ɓacewa lokacin da Vane ya faɗi saboda haɗarin harbi na mafarauci. Abubuwan da suka faru kwanan nan sun kori Dorian don neman canji a rayuwarsa, ba zai iya ci gaba da tafiya kan hanyar batsa ba. Kodayake ba zai iya ikirarin laifukan da ya aikata ba ... amma zanen ya bayyana wata magana ta daban: munafunci.

Mutuwa

A ƙarshe, Dorian ba zata iya ɗaukar fuskokin zane nasa ba; cikin fushi, ya yi amfani da wuka ɗaya da ya kashe Hallward don lalata zanen. Bayinsa sun ji faɗuwa. Suna zuwa dubawa, sun sami hoton saurayi kyakkyawa Dorian Gray. Kusa da zanen, jikin wani tsoho ya yi mummunan rauni tare da wuƙa da ke makale a kirjinsa.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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