Frankenstein. Tsohuwar Mary Shelley ta cika shekaru 200

Shin 1 de enero de 1818 lokacin da aka buga shi Frankenstein ko zamani mai suna Prometheus, fitacciyar marubuciya, ta Ingila Mary Wallstonecraft Shelley. Don haka menene tuni adabin gargajiya ba wai kawai firgita bane amma ya shafi duniya kawai kammala ta farko 200 shekaru. Babu abin da ya fi kyau fiye da fara wannan shekarar ta 2018 ta hanyar duban tarihi na har abada wanda ke motsawa, tsoratarwa da sanya duk tsararraki yin tunani ba gajiyawa. A cikin sifofi da dama iri-iri Frankenstein zai ci gaba da jimrewa ba tare da wata shakka ba.

Marya Shelley

Ta kasance 'yar marubuci kuma masanin falsafa William Godwin da de Maryamu Wollstone. Inaya daga cikin masu goyon baya ga lalata dukiya da adawa da duk nau'ikan gwamnatoci, kusan mai farkon tashin hankali. Kuma wani, marubuci kuma mai kafa muryar mata ta zamani, marubucin Tabbatar da hakkokin mace (Tabbatar da 'yancin mata) wanda a ciki aka bukaci mata su sami damar samun ilimi irin na maza.

A cikin 1814, tana da shekara goma sha shida, ta yi tsalle tare da mawaƙin Percy shelley, wanda ya fara soyayya da shi duk da cewa ya yi aure. Sun yi aure a 1816, bayan matar farko ta Shelley ta kashe kanta ta hanyar nutsuwa. Maryamu ita ce mahaliccin littafin da ake ɗauka na farkon fiction kimiyya kuma wannan a yau ya kasance ɗayan manyan labaran ban tsoro na kowane lokaci.

Labari ya nuna cewa ya rubuta labarin masanin kimiyya Victor Frankenstein ta fare. Wani dare a cikin Yuni 1816 ya sadu da Lord Byron da sauransu a cikin wani ƙauye a gefen birnin Geneva. Can, yayin da hadari ya kulle cikin gidan, sun kasance karanta labaran ta'addancir don nishadi

Frankenstein nan da nan ya zama nasara da jama'a. Amma Mary Shelley ba ta sake samo shi ba tare da wani aikinta na gaba ba. Domin ya rubuta wasu litattafai huɗu, gajerun labarai, waƙoƙi da littattafan tafiye-tafiye da yawa. Misali, littafinsa Namiji na karshe Hakanan ana ɗauka ɗayan mafi kyawun waɗanda ya rubuta kuma ya faɗi halakar 'yan Adam ta mummunar annoba. Y Lodore tarihin almara ne.

Bayan mutuwar mijinta, a 1822, Maryamu ta sadaukar da kanta ga yada aikinta na mawaki. Ta ya mutu a Landan a ranar 1 ga Fabrairu, 1851. Burinta na karshe shi ne a binne ta tare da iyayenta kuma dukkansu sun huta a makabartar St. Peter, a Bournemouth, a kudancin Ingila.

Frankenstein

Victor Frankenstein masanin kimiyya ne kuma ɗalibin ƙungiyar asiri ne, wanda ke damuwa da cimma babbar ƙalubale a cikin duniyar kimiyya: rayar da gawa. Amma nasararka zata zama hukuncinka. Creationirƙirar wani dodo mai ban tsoro wanda, sakamakon ƙi da yake samarwa a cikin kowa, yana son ɗaukar fansa akan mahaliccinsa, wanda yake ɗora alhakin masifarta. Don haka ya juya masa da duk abin da yake so. Dodo, mara lafiya da kaɗaici, ya nemi mahaliccinsa ya ba shi abokin zama don ya ɓace har abada, amma Victor ya ƙi yin hakan. Abinda kawai zai kawo kwanciyar hankali da hutawa shine karshen dayan.

Misali a bayan labarin shima a hoto na tsoron kadaitaka, na daban, da kuma babban roƙo game da haƙuri. Haɗuwa da kyawawan abubuwa masu ban tsoro da ban tsoro, littafin Gothic da labarin ilimin falsafa shima ɓangare ne na babban nasarar sa kuma yana ci gaba da jan hankalin masu karatu.

Tabbas Victor Frankenstein da halittun da aka halitta daga gawarwakin mutane sun kasance abu da wahayi na kusan ayyuka dubu tsakanin silima, gidan wasan kwaikwayo da kuma ban dariya.

A sinima

La karbuwa ta farko Ya kasance a kan babban allo a cikin 1910. Tun daga wannan lokacin an sami kusan nau'ikan 150 a cikin sigar daban-daban. Ga wasu.

Frankenstein, 1910

Abin da ke a Fim ɗin gajeren minti 16 samar wa Thomas Edison Kamfanin Fim cewa a farkon fim din ya yi amfani da Frankenstein a matsayin batunsa.

Frankenstein, 1931

Wannan sigar na James whale shine wanda ya bamu sanannen sanannen dodo na - Frankenstein, wanda Boris Karloff ya buga. Fim ɗin yana da matakai da yawa. Na farko shine Amaryar Frankenstein, na 1935, Whale ne ya sake ba da umarni, kuma tare da Boris Karloff da Colin Clive kamar yadda dodo da Dr. Frankenstein, bi da bi. Elsa lanchester a wata fassarar tatsuniya ya hada budurwar dodo. Bayan shekaru hudu aka sake shi Ofan Frankenstein, ya jagoranta Rowland V. Lee. Karloff shine dodo a karo na karshe.

La'anar Frankenstein, 1957

Ta yaya kamfanin shirya fina-finai zai kasance kamar na ɗaya Guduma ta Burtaniya? Don haka a cikin 1957 suka yi nasu fasalin dodo. La'anar Frankenstein An tauraru ta da tatsuniyoyi biyu na jinsi kamar yadda suke Christopher Lee, a cikin rawar dodo, da Peter cushing kamar Victor Frankenstein. Shi ne fim na ban tsoro na farko tare da ƙarin ɗimbin ɗoki da ɗoki.

Iyalin Munster da Saurayi Frankenstein

A cikin shekarun 60s salo yana son motsawa zuwa wasan kwaikwayo kuma jerin telebijin sanannu ne kuma suna da mashahuri sosai Iyalin Munster, Wanda ya kirkirar da kansa irin na dodo mai wahayi daga adadi na Karloff. Herman Munster shi ne mai kyau, mai kyau kuma mai kyau mahaifin dangin dodanni, vampires da waswolves.

Frankenstein na Andy Warhol, 1973

Kuma tatsuniyar al'adun gargajiya kamar Andy Warhol ce ta samar da wannan sigar a cikin 1973 wanda Faransa da Italiya suka haɓaka tare da jagorancin Paul Morrisey. Ya haskaka Udo Kier da Monique van Vooren kuma an loda masu tashin hankali da kuma bayyananniyar jima'i.

Frankenstein na Mary Shelley, 1994

Ya kasance sanannen ɗan wasan kwaikwayo na Biritaniya kuma darakta kamar Kenneth Branagh wanda yake son komawa asalin rubutun Shelley don wannan samar da miliyoyin daloli. Ya haskaka a ciki yana wasa da Victor Frankenstein wanda Robert De Niro ya sake bugawa tare da ɗamarar fuska da jiki waɗanda suka kasance da aminci ga ainihin bayanin. by Tsakar Gida.

Frankenstein, 2011

Ya kasance karbuwa mai ban mamaki a gidan wasan kwaikwayo na kasa a London. Kuma yan wasan kwaikwayo Benedict Cumberbatch y Johnny lee miller sun canza matsayin Victor Frankenstein da halittar.


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