Dostoyevsky

Fyodor Dostoyevsky.

Fyodor Dostoyevsky.

Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821 - 1881) marubucin litattafan Rasha ne wanda zurfin tunani ya sa shi - mai yiwuwa - marubuci mafi tasiri a almara na ƙarni na XNUMX. Ya kuma kasance sanannen marubucin labarin gajerun labarai, edita, kuma ɗan jarida, wanda ya iya sauya madawakan inuwar zuciyar ɗan adam tare da lokutan haske da ba su dace da su ba.

Ra'ayoyinsa sun nuna zurfin motsin zamani, wanzuwar rayuwa, tiyoloji da sukar adabi, da kuma makarantu masu yawa na ilimin halin mutum. Hakanan, ana ɗaukar aikinsa na annabci saboda daidaito wanda yayi annabcin haɓakar juyin juya halin Rasha zuwa iko.

Tashin ɗayan manyan marubutan kowane lokaci

Muhimmin abubuwan da suka faru a rayuwar Dostoyevsky - sauyawa zuwa kisa, gudun hijira a Siberia da lokutan farfadiya - sanannu ne kamar ayyukansa.. A zahiri, ya yi amfani da yawancin abubuwan ban mamaki a rayuwarsa don ƙara rikitarwa na musamman ga halayensa.

Yanayin aikinku

A cewar Gary Saul Molson (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2020) abubuwan da suka faru a kusa da marubucin Rasha har yanzu ba su da tabbas. Sabanin haka, wasu jita-jita marasa ma'ana an yarda da su azaman tabbatattun hujjojin wanzuwarsa. A gefe guda, Dostoyevsky ya bambanta da sauran marubutan Rasha (kamar su Tolstoy ko Turgenev) a cikin yanayin aikinsa ta hanyoyi biyu na asali.

Na farko, koyaushe yana aiki a ƙarƙashin matsin lamba daga yawan bashin da aka jawo saboda matsalar caca da matsalolin iyali.. Na biyu, Dostoyevsky ya rabu da kwatancen kwatancen kyawawan iyalai masu karko; maimakon haka, ya nuna ƙungiyoyi masu ban tsoro, waɗanda hadari ya kewaye su. Hakanan, Dostoyevsky ya binciki al'amura - mai rikitarwa a lokacin - kamar rashin daidaito tsakanin jama'a da matsayin mata a tsakanin al'ummar Rasha.

Iyali, haihuwa da yarinta

An haifi Fyodor Mikhaylovich Dostoyevsky a Moscow, Russia, a Nuwamba 11, 1821 (Oktoba 30 a kalandar Julian). Shi ne na biyu a cikin yara bakwai tsakanin Mikhail Dostoyevsky (wani basarake daga Darayóve), daga zuriyar Belarus, da Maria Fiódorovna, wata mace mai al'ada daga dangin Rasha. Halin kama-karya na mahaifin - likita a asibitin Moscow don matalauta - sun yi rikici sosai tare da zaƙi da dumi na mahaifiya mai ɗaci.

Samartaka

Har zuwa 1833, saurayi Fyodor ya yi makaranta. A cikin 1834, shi da ɗan'uwansa Mikhail sun shiga makarantar kwana ta Chermak don makarantar sakandare. Mahaifiyarsa ta mutu daga cutar tarin fuka a 1837. Bayan shekaru biyu, bayinsa suka kashe mahaifinsa (Dostoyevsky daga baya ya ayyana) don ramuwar gayya don halinsa na zalunci. Abunda ya faru tare da halaye da yawa na almara dangane da wasu masana tarihi.

Horarwa a cikin Kwalejin Soja

A wancan lokacin, 'yan'uwan Dostoyevsky sun riga sun kasance ɗalibai a Kwalejin Soja ta Saint Petersburg don Injiniyoyi., yana bin hanyar da mahaifinsa ya bi. Babu shakka, Fyodor ya ji daɗi sosai yayin horon da ya samu. Tare da haɗin gwiwar ɗan'uwansa - wanda shine babban amininsa - ya fara shiga harkar soyayya da adabin Gothic.

Duk da irin hankalin da yake da shi na adabi, Dostoyevsky ba shi da matsala game da batutuwa na adadi yayin horo. Haka kuma babu wani koma baya don samun aiki da zarar ya kammala karatu; sami matsayi a Ma'aikatar Injiniyan Soja. Koyaya, kamar yadda 'yarsa Aimée Dostoyevsky (1922) ta nuna, ba tare da matsi na mahaifin zagi ba, wani abu ashirin Fyodor ya sami' yancin aiwatar da aikinsa.

Tasiri

Tasirin mawaƙin Bajamushe Friedrich Schiller sananne ne a cikin ayyukansa na farko (ba a adana su ba), Mariya stuart y Boris Gudunov. Har ila yau, a cikin waɗannan matakan farko, Dostoyevsky yana da fifiko ga marubuta kamar Sir Walter Scott, Ann Radcliffe, Nikolay Karamzim, da Aleksandr Pushkin. Tabbas, ziyarar Honoré Balzac zuwa Saint Petersburg a shekarar 1844 babban lamari ne, cikin girmamawarsa ya fassara Sunan mahaifi Eugenia.

Littattafan adabi na farko

Kalmomi daga Fyodor Dostoyevski.

Kalmomi daga Fyodor Dostoyevski.

A waccan shekarar ya bar sojoji don sadaukar da kansa kawai ga rubutu. Yana ɗan shekara 24, Dostoyevsky ya taka rawa a fagen adabin Rasha tare da littafin tarihinsa Talakawa (1845). A cikin wannan ɗab'in, marubucin ɗan Moscow ya bayyana ƙwarewar zamantakewar sa da ingantaccen salon sa a sarari. Har ma ya sami yabo daga sanannen mai sukar adabin nan Belinsky, wanda ya gabatar da shi ga mashahurin masanin ilimi da fada a ji na St. Petersburg.

Rashin aikin Dostoyevsky ya haifar da ƙiyayya daga sauran matasa marubutan Rasha (kamar Turgenev, misali). Saboda wannan dalili, magajinsa ke aiki -Sau biyu (1846), Farin Dare (1848) y Nietochka Nezvanova (1849) - an karɓi 'yan ra'ayoyi marasa kyau. Wannan yanayin ya dame shi sosai; wani bangare na yadda yake mayar da martani game da damuwar shi ne shiga kungiyoyin akidu da sassaucin ra'ayi, wadanda ake kira nihilists.

Bala'i kamar mai

Sashin farfadiya

Dostoyevsky ya kamu da kamu na farko yana ɗan shekara tara. Za su zama abubuwa ne na lokaci-lokaci a rayuwarsa. Koyaya, yawancin masu rubutun tarihin sunyi daidai yayin nuna mutuwar mahaifin a matsayin abin da ke taɓarɓarewa a cikin hoton asibiti. Marubucin ɗan Rasha ya ba da cikakken bayanin irin waɗannan abubuwan don bayyana halayen halayen Yarima Myshkin (Wawa, 1869) da Smerdiákov ('Yan uwan ​​Karamazov, 1879).

Siberia

A 1849, Fyodor Dostoyevsky hukumomin Rasha sun kama shi. An zarge shi da kasancewa wani ɓangare na makircin Petrachevsky, wani motsi na siyasa a kan Tsar Nicholas I. Duk waɗanda ke da hannu a yanke musu hukuncin kisa, tare da yanke hukunci mai sauƙi - a zahiri - a gaban bango. A mayar da shi, Dostoyevsky an tasa keyarsa zuwa Siberia don gudanar da aikin bautar na tsawon shekaru biyar, na ɓarke ​​da mugunta.

A cewar Aimée Dostoyevsky, mahaifinta "ya bayyana saboda wasu dalilai cewa wadanda aka yanke wa hukuncin sun kasance malamansa ne." A hankali Dostoyevsky yayi amfani da baiwarsa wajen hidimar girman Rasha. Abin da ya fi haka, ya ɗauki kansa almajirin Kristi kuma mai ƙyamar lalata nihilism. Don haka, Dostoyevsky ba zai sake neman yardar sauran Turai ba (duk da cewa ba ya raina shi), maimakon haka ya haɓaka al'adun Slavic-Mongol na ƙasar.

Farkon aure

Dostoyevsky yayi sashi na biyu na hukuncinsa a Kazakhstan a matsayin mai zaman kansa. A can, ya fara dangantaka da Mariya Dmítrievna Isáyeva; a 1857 suka yi aure. Jim kaɗan bayan haka, afuwa da Tsar Alexander II ya bayar ya dawo da matsayinsa na daraja, saboda haka, ya sami damar sake buga ayyukansa. Wanda ya fara bayyana sune Kogin mafarki y Stenpánchikovo da mazaunanta (duka daga 1859).

'Yan uwan ​​Karamazov.

'Yan uwan ​​Karamazov.

Alaƙar da ke tsakanin Dostoyevsky da matarsa ​​ta farko ya kasance mai hadari don faɗi ƙaramar. Ta ƙi jinin Tver, garin da suka zauna a mafi yawan shekarunsu na uku da hudu na aure. Yayin da ya saba da manyan mashahuran yankin, ita - a cikin ramuwar gayya - ta fara alaƙa da wani saurayi mai wasiƙu. A ƙarshe, Mariya ta bayyana wa mijinta komai (gami da kwadayin abin duniya), tana wulakanta shi a tsakiyar biki.

Yin caca da bashi

A 1861, Fyodor Dostoyevsky ya kafa mujallar Vremya (Lokaci) tare da babban wansa Mikhail, bayan sun ba shi damar komawa Saint Petersburg. Can ya buga Da wulakantattu da masu laifi (1861) y Tunawa da gidan matattu (1862), tare da muhawara dangane da abubuwan da ya samu a Siberia. A shekara mai zuwa ya yi balaguro zuwa Turai ta hanyar Jamus, Faransa, Ingila, Switzerland, Italiya da Austria.

Yayin tafiyarsa, Dostoyevsky ya yaudare shi da sabon wasan sa'a wanda ya fito a cikin gidajen caca na Paris: roulette. Sakamakon haka, ya koma Moscow a lokacin kaka na 1863 fatarar kuɗi gaba ɗaya. Don kara zagi ga rauni Vremya an dakatar da shi saboda wani labarin game da tawayen Poland. Kodayake, shekara mai zuwa ya buga Tunawa da soasa a mujallar epoja (Zamanin), sabon mujallar inda yayi aiki a matsayin edita tare da Mikhail.

Bala'in da ya biyo baya

Amma masifa ta sake faruwa a kansa, yayin da ya kasance bazawara a ƙarshen 1864 kuma jim kaɗan bayan babban wansa, Mikhail, ya mutu. Saboda wannan dalili, ya faɗa cikin tsananin damuwa har ma da ƙari a cikin wasan, yana tara ƙarin bashi (ban da 25.000 rubles, an ɗauka saboda mutuwar Mikhail). Don haka Dostoyevsky ya yanke shawarar guduwa zuwa ƙasashen waje, inda motar caca ta sake kama shi.

Kirkirar adabi a matsi

Dostoyevsky caca (da butulci) ya sa masu ba da bashi bin shi har zuwa ƙarshen zamaninsa. Ya koma Saint Petersburg a 1865 don buga ɗayan shahararrun ayyukan sa, Laifi da Hukunci. A cikin yunƙurin sasanta asusunsa, ya sanya hannu kan wata yarjejeniya tare da mawallafin Stellovski a 1866. Thearin dubu uku da aka tanada sun tafi kai tsaye a hannun masu bin sa bashi.

Aure na biyu

Yarjejeniyar bugawa ta sanya haƙƙoƙin haƙƙin mallaka nasa idan ya jinkirta isar da labari a wannan shekarar. A ranar 12 ga Fabrairu, 1867, ya auri Anna Grigórievna Snítkina, mai shekaru 25. Ita ce mai sha'awar daukar hoto wanda aka hayar shi don yin rubutu Mai kunnawa (1866) a cikin kwanaki 26 kacal. A yayin bikin amarci (da kuma guje wa masu bin bashi), sabbin ma'auratan sun zauna a Geneva, Switzerland.

Sakamakon wannan ƙungiyar, an haifi Sonia a cikin Fabrairu 1868; abin ba in ciki, jaririn ya mutu da wata uku. Dostoyevsky ya sake faɗawa cikin wasan kuma ya yanke shawarar tafiya tare da matarsa ​​a ɗan takaitaccen rangadin ƙasar Italiya. A 1869 suka ƙaura zuwa Dresden, garin 'yarsu ta biyu, Liuvob. A waccan shekarar ma aka ga an ƙaddamar da WawaKoyaya, yawancin kuɗin da aka samu ta hanyar buga labarin ya tafi biyan bashi.

Shekarun da suka gabata

A lokacin 1870s, Dostoyevsky ya buga adadi mai yawa wanda ya tabbatar da shi a matsayin ɗayan manyan marubutan tarihi. Ba wai kawai daga Rasha ba, amma daga ko'ina cikin duniya. Wasu daga cikin makirce-makircen da haruffan da aka haɓaka sun samo asali ne daga abubuwan tarihin rayuwa da al'amuran siyasa waɗanda suka girgiza Rasha.

Sai dai Miji madawwami (1870), an rubuta sauran littattafan kuma an buga su bayan dawowar Dostoyevsky zuwa Saint Petersburg a cikin 1871. A can, aka haifi ɗansa na uku, Fyodor. Kodayake shekarun da suka biyo baya na kwanciyar hankali na tattalin arziki, matsalolin farfadiya na Fyodor M. ya ta'azzara. Mutuwar ɗansa na huɗu, Aleksei (1875 - 1878) ya ƙara shafar hoton firgita na marubucin ɗan Rasha.

Wawa.

Wawa.

Bugawa ta Fyodor Dostoyevsky

  • Mai aljan. Littafin labari (1872).
  • Dan kasa. Mako-mako (1873 - 1874).
  • Diary na marubuci. Mujalla (1873 - 1877).
  • Matashi. Littafin labari (1874).
  • 'Yan uwan ​​Karámazov. Littafin labari - zai iya kammala sashin farko kawai - (1880).

Legacy

Fyodor Mikhaylovich Dostoyevsky ya mutu a gidansa da ke Saint Petersburg a ranar 9 ga Fabrairu, 1881, saboda cutar huhu da ke tattare da farfadiya. Jana'izar tasa ta samu halartar mashahurai da 'yan siyasa daga ko'ina cikin Turai, gami da fitattun mutane adabin Rasha na lokacin. Ko da - daga baya ya bayyana gwauruwarsa, Anna Grigorievna Dostoyevsky - bikin ya tattaro adadi mai yawa na matasa masu nihilists.

Ta wannan hanyar, hatta maƙiyansa na akida sun yaba wa gwanin ɗan Rasha. Ba abin mamaki ba ne, Dostoyevsky ya sami damar yin tasiri a kan adadi mai yawa na masana falsafa, masana kimiyya ko marubutan ƙarancin Friedrich Nietzsche, Sigmund Freud, Franz Kafka da Stefan Zweig, da sauransu. Aikinsa na duniya ne, tare da gadon da ya yi daidai da na Cervantes, Dante, Shakespeare ko Víctor Hugo.


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