Miserables

Victor Hugo, marubucin littafin Les Misérables

Les Miserables na ɗaya daga cikin litattafan gargajiya waɗanda ke jan hankalin fiye da ɗaya. Tare da labari mai cike da soyayya, yaki, cin amana, gafara, fansa, magudi ... da wasu makirce-makirce daban-daban, ya zama tushe ga jerin shirye-shiryen talabijin (har ma da na kananan), fina-finai, har ma da kiɗa.

Amma, Me kuka sani game da Les Misérables? Shin ainihin halayen ya wanzu? Ko cewa an rubuta shi a lokacin da ya rinjayi mawallafinsa? Kuma wanene marubucin wannan muhimmin aikin na karni na XNUMX? Za ku san duk wannan kuma ƙari da yawa a ƙasa.

Victor Hugo, marubucin littafin Les Misérables

Kowane littafi yana da "uba" wanda shine ya kirkireshi ta hanyar tunani (kodayake da yawa suna cewa masu rubutun da kansu suna raɗa labaran su). Kuma, a wannan yanayin, mahaifin Les Miserables mawaki ne kuma marubuci Victor Hugo.

Amma wanene Victor Hugo?

Victor Marie Hugo marubucin Faransa ne wanda aka haifa a 1802 a Besançon. An autan su uku, ya kasance yana yarinta tsakanin Paris da Naples saboda aikin mahaifinsa (ya kasance janar na Daular Faransa). A cikin 1811, iyayensa sun aike shi zuwa Madrid, inda zai ciyar, tare da ɗan'uwansa, wani lokaci a makarantar kwana ta addini (mazaunin da ke makarantar San Antón).

Shekaru biyu bayan haka, suka zauna tare da mahaifiyarsu a Faris, wanda ya rabu da mijinta, a bayyane saboda rashin aminci a tsakaninta da Janar Victor Lahorie (mahaifin Victor Hugo da kuma malami). Koyaya, wannan bai daɗe ba saboda, a 1815, dukansu Victor da wani ɗan'uwansa, Eugène, an saka su a fansho na Cordier na tsawon shekaru 3. A wannan lokacin ne lokacin da fasalin keɓaɓɓu ya fara haɓaka a cikin sa, yana rubuta wasu ayoyi. A can, saurayi malami ne yake gyara rubutun nasa, kuma ɗan'uwansa da mahaifiyarsa suna karantawa, waɗanda suke kula da su.

Rubutun farko na Victor Hugo sun mai da hankali ne kan waka, har ma da shiga gasa (a zahiri, na farko bai ci shi ba saboda masu yanke hukunci sun yi tsammanin ba zai yiwu ba cewa a shekarunsa zai iya yin wani abu kamar abin da ya tsara). Wadannan nasarorin sun bunkasa shi, ya fara aikinshi na adabi, wanda yake ya banbanta, tunda bawai kawai ya maida hankali ne akan waka ba, har ma ya buga wasu nau'ikan wasan kwaikwayo kamar wasan kwaikwayo, labari (wanda aka rubuta a hijira) ...

A ƙarshe, ya mutu a Faris a cikin 1885 bayan rayuwa mai cike da matsaloli da yawa.

Takaitawa da taƙaitaccen littattafan Les Miserables

Takaitawa da taƙaitaccen littattafan Les Miserables

Les Miserables wani labari ne wanda ya kunshi nau'ikan soyayya. Koyaya, ya ci gaba sosai, tun da ta hanyar aikinsa ya shiga tsakani tsakanin nagarta da mugunta, a daidai lokacin da yake mana magana game da siyasa, adalci, addini, da sauransu. Lokacin tarihin da suke rayuwa a ciki, Tawaye a watan Yunin 1832, tare da sakamakon sauye-sauye na siyasa, ya ƙirƙira kowane hali, amma marubucin ya yi nazarin abubuwan da ake gani a wancan lokacin.

Aikin ya kunshi jimloli biyar ne. Suna ba da labarin Jean Valjean da sauran halayen da ke da alaƙa da shi.

Kowane littafi yana da suna, don haka, kun haɗu: Fantine, Cosette, Marius, The Idyll of Rue Plumet da almara na Rue Saint-Denis; da Jean Valjean.

Wani abu da ke nuna wannan aikin shine gaskiyar cewa ci gaba a cikin lokaci, ta wannan hanyar da muke ganin canjin halaye daban-daban da kuma yadda suke girma da haɓaka yayin da al'amuran ke gudana (ka tuna cewa hakan na faruwa ne tsawon shekaru 20, inda yara suka girma, jarumin ya fara girma…).

Bayanin littafin (na Planeta) ya karanta kamar haka: Jimlar labari. Frenchungiyar Faransanci ta ƙarni na XNUMX ta ba da labari daga zamantakewar jama'a, tarihi, halayyar mutum da kuma waƙa

Jean Valjean tsohon fursuna ne. Lokacin da ya isa garin D., kan hanyar zuwa garinsu kuma ya gabatar da fasfo ɗinsa - wanda aka lasafta shi a matsayin tsohon mai laifi da kuma "Mutum mai haɗari" - a zauren garin, ba wanda ya isa ya marabce shi ciyar da shi, banda Don Bienvenido, firist. Ci amanar mai kare shi, Valjean ya saci kayan azurfarsa, amma an kama shi a cikin yankin, ya kai shi gaban firist. Don Bienvenido ya yanke shawarar ba da rahoto game da shi, amma ya ɗauki alƙawari daga gare shi: don amfani da abin da ya ɗauka don zama mutumin kirki.

A cikin tarihin adabi Les Miserables sun mallaki wuri na dama. Wataƙila saboda Victor Hugo ba wai kawai ya kula da bayar da labari ba ne, kamar yadda waɗanda suka gabace shi suka yi ba, har ma da son rai suka nemi samfurin da za a iya ɗauka a matsayin cikakken labari, wanda aka fahimta a matsayin isasshen nau'in adabi don iya faɗin komai game da komai; wani nau'i, a ƙarshe, wanda aka dace da mutum da duniyar zamani.

"Nan gaba yana da sunaye da yawa. Ga masu rauni shi ne wanda ba za a same shi ba. Ga mai tsoro, wanda ba a sani ba. Kuma ga jarumi wannan dama ce. »

Personajes sarakuna

Manyan haruffa Les Misérables

A cikin Les Misérables, akwai haruffa da yawa waɗanda suka fito kuma suna daga cikin cigaban wasu. Koyaya, zamu iya haskaka wasu azaman manyan, kuma waɗannan zasu zama masu zuwa:

Jean valjean

Shine babban halayen dukkan aikin. Ya kasance a kurkuku saboda ya saci gurasa Kuma bayan 'yan shekaru, lokacin da aka sake shi, kowa ya raina shi saboda kasancewarsa ɗan damfara. Abin da ya sa ke ɗauke da fasfon rawaya, "hukuncinsa" har abada.

Burin sa shine canza rayuwarsa, kuma abu na farko da zai fara gwadawa shine canza asalin sa, tunda hakane zai iya fara sabuwar rayuwa. Koyaya, ba da daɗewa ba Insifekta Javert ya gano shi kuma ya buɗe shi, yana farautar farauta saboda ya gaskata shi da laifi fiye da haka.

Hakikanin Jean Valjean

Wani abu da ba mutane da yawa suka sani ba, kuma abin da suka ambata a cikin National Geographic, shine wannan halin, Jean Valjean, tare da Sufeto Javert, a zahiri mutum ɗaya ne a zahiri. A zahiri, Victor Hugo ya yi wahayi zuwa ga mutum ɗaya don duka halayen. Muna magana ne game da Eugène François Vidocq.

Wannan mutumin ya kasance tsohon mai yanke hukunci wanda ya san yadda zai fanshi kansa ga kuskurensa a baya, ya zama sanannen ɗan kasuwa. Kuma har ila yau a cikin shugaban Tsaron Tsaron Faransa, haka kuma a farkon mai binciken sirri mai zaman kansa. Hakan yayi daidai, manyan halayensa na ɓoyewa sun yi masa aiki don kutsawa cikin kowace ƙungiyar masu laifi kuma, duk da cewa an san fuskarsa, hakan bai hana shi ci gaba da aiki a matsayin mai kutsawa tsakanin masu laifi ba.

Saboda wannan dalili, Vidocq ya kasance "gidan kayan gargajiya" wanda ya ba Victor Hugo damar ƙirƙirar halaye biyu, jarumi da adawarsa, ba tare da sanin cewa, a zahiri, iri ɗaya ne.

fantine

Fantina yarinya ce 'yar shekaru 15 kacal. A cikin soyayya da namijin da a ƙarshe ya rabu da ita, ta yi ciki kuma dole ne ta bar ɗiyarta da dangi don neman aiki da kanta. Ta sadu da Jean Valjean saboda yana aiki a masana'anta, amma ana korarsa lokacin da suka sami labarin cewa ita uwar yarinya ce.

A wannan lokacin, an bar ta da wani zaɓi sai karuwa da sayar da gashinta don tallafawa kanta.

Cosette

Ita 'yar Fantina ce. Iyalin da ke kula da ita sun wulaƙanta ta, suna tilasta mata aiki duk da shekarunta. Koyaya, Valljean ya cece ta. Yana biya dangin yarinyar kuma ya dauke ta inda suka zama uba da diya.

Javert

Sufeto Javert ya san Jean Valjean saboda shi mai gadin gidan yari ne lokacin da yake kurkuku. Bayan sake ganawa, Javert ya fahimci cewa ya canza asalinsa, kuma yana zargin cewa ya aikata hakan ne saboda yana gudun adalci.

Saboda haka, makasudin shine kama shi.

Bishop din

Shi mutum ne wanda yake tasiri akan Valjean don ya fanshi kansa daga abubuwan da ya gabata kuma ya zama mutumin kirki.

Marius

Mai son Cossette.

Yanayin Les Misérables

Yanayin Les Misérables

Ka tuna cewa kwanan watan aikin da lokacin da aka rubuta shi bai dace ba. Victor Hugo ya rubuta Les Miserables a 1862, a cikin yaƙin Napoleonic da aka aiwatar don ƙoƙarin cin Faransa. Koyaya, ranar da aka saita littafin ya ɗan ɗan wuce. Ko da hakane, marubucin da kansa yayi amfani da abubuwan da ya samu, da kuma abubuwan da ya tuna da ƙuruciyarsa, don sake maimaita labarin, wanda kuma ya tabo wasu mahimman ƙananan abubuwa kamar bambancin aji, talauci, rashin aikin yi, soyayya da juyin juya hali.

Don ba ku ra'ayi, kundin farko ya sanya mu a cikin 1815, shekarar da aka dawo da masarauta. Waɗannan suna zuwa cikin lokaci, suna mai da hankali da abubuwan da suka faru na tarihi, kamar juyin juya halin 1830 da 1848, waɗanda suka faru a ko'ina cikin Turai.

A nata bangare, a juzu'i na karshe zamu tsinci kanmu a 1835, shekarar da Valjean ya wuce.

Les Misérables Karbuwa

Wannan ita ce nasarar Les Miserables, cewa an daidaita labarin cikin jerin, fina-finai har ma da wasan kwaikwayo ko kade-kade.

Wasu daga cikin wakilai kuma sanannu sune masu zuwa:

  • Aikin kiɗa afauna da farin ciki da farin ciki, na Manuel de Falla, dangane da mummunan halin Los.
  • Les Miserables na Cameron Mackintosh, wanda ya nuna Nick Jonas a cikin rawar Marius
  • Shirun fim Les Misérables, 1907.
  • 1958 fim din Jean-Paul Le Chanois.
  • Jerin yara mai suna iri daya.
  • Cosette, kuma jerin yara ne daga 1977
  • Musical Les Misérables, na Tom Hooper tare da Hugh Jackman, Russell Crowe, Anne Hathaway, Amanda Seyfried da sauran yan wasan kwaikwayo.
  • Andrew Davies 'ayyukan hidiman talabijin a 2018.

Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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