Garuruwan Mutanen Espanya Biyu Daga cikin Garuruwan Adabin Unesco

Granada, gari na farko na Sifen da UNESCO ta amince da shi a matsayin aasar Adabi.

Granada, gari na farko na Sifen da UNESCO ta amince da shi a matsayin aasar Adabi.

La Unesco fara gina wani Hanyoyin Sadarwar Garuruwa a cikin 2004, wanda aka san nau'ikan da yawa: Adabi, Cinema, Music, Crafts and Popular Art, Design, Digital Art and Gastronomy.

Ka'idojin zabi na Garuruwan Adabi suna da dangantaka da tarihin wallafe-wallafe, shirye-shiryen ilimi da yawan dakunan karatu, shagunan littattafai da cibiyoyin al'adu a cikin garin. Har ila yau bukukuwan adabi da halartar participationan ƙasa. Tun daga wannan lokacin, a rukunin adabi, ya ba da lambar yabo ga garuruwa 20 a duniya kuma biyu 'yan Spain ne, Barcelona da Granada. Segovia a halin yanzu tana gasar Gasar.

Edinburgh (Scotland)

Edinburgh shine Birnin Adabi na farko na UNESCO a 2004. Menene Edinburgh ya zama birni na adabi? Marubuta masu mahimmancin duniya kamar Walter Scott ko Robert Louis Stevenson, mafi girma International Book Festival ta inda sama da marubuta 800 suke bi kowace shekara kuma garin ya kasance  fiye da kantin sayar da littattafai 50.

Melbourne (Ostiraliya)

Melbourne ita ce Birni na Adabi na UNESCO na biyu, a cikin 2008, shekaru hudu bayan haka. Menene Melbourne ya zama birni na adabi? A babban cibiyar sadarwa na dakunan karatu da wuraren adana littattafai, Babbar cibiyar sadarwa ta Ostiraliya da bukukuwan adabi guda huɗu: Bikin Marubuta na Melbourne, Bikin Waƙoƙi da suka wuce gona da iri, Alfred Deakin Innovation Seminars da Fitowar Marubuta Marubuta.

Iowa (Amurka)

Menene Iowa ya zama birni na adabi? Shine garin da aka koyar dashi na farko Master of Creative Writing na duniya, a cikin 1936. Marubutan 25 sun lashe kyautar Pulitzer tun 1955. Tana ɗaukar bakuncin shahararrun bukukuwan adabi da gasa kuma tana da manyan hanyoyin sadarwar littattafai.

Dublin (Ireland)

Me Dublin ya zama birni na adabi? Baya ga kasancewar wurin Ulysses by James Joyce, bikin Ranar Litinin duk wani biki a cikin girmamawarsa wanda mutane ke yin ado kamar haruffa daga littafin. Bayan Joyce, su Dubliners ne Oscar Wilde, Bram Stoker, WB Yeats (Nobel Prize), Samuel Beckett, Jonathan Swift, Bernard Shaw (Nobel Prize), Samuel Beckett (Nobel Prize) ko Seamus Heaney (Nobel Prize).

Reykjavik (Iceland)

Me Reykjavik ya zama birni na adabi? Iceland ita ce ƙasa a duniya cewa buga ƙarin taken a kowane mutum kuma suna nuna Arnaldur Indridason, ɗayan shahararrun litattafan laifuka na zamani.

Norwich (Burtaniya)

Menene Norwich ta zama birni na adabi? Wannan ita ce mafakar birni ta Burtaniya ta farko don barazanar marubuta tun 2007 kuma ya kasance memba na Networkungiyar Sadarwar ofasashen Duniya na 'Yan Gudun Hijira (ICORN).

Juliana na Norwich (1342 - 1416) ita ce marubuciyar littafin farko da Turanci da wata mata ta rubuta.

Krakow (Poland)

Menene Krakow ya zama birni na adabi? Yana da lgarin 'yan kasar Poland wadanda suka lashe kyautar Nobel ta adabi, kamar Wislawa Szymborska da Czesław Miłosz.

A cikin birni wasu daga cikin littattafan rubutu kuma shahararrun dakunan karatu a duniya. Ana gudanar da bukukuwa daban-daban na adabi kamar su Miłosz Festival da Conrad Festival.

Dunedin (New Zealand)

Garin da ba a sani ba ga mutane da yawa, menene Dunedin ya zama birni na adabi? Su ɗakin karatu shine ɗakin karatu na farko na jama'a da kyauta a cikin ƙasar. Dunedin ya kasance gida ga yawancin marubuta da mawaƙa da aka fi sani da New Zealand da kuma masu zane da marubutan littattafan yara. A ciki akwai asalin kakannin mutanen Kāi, wanda hadisai na baka sun kasance suna sakar tatsuniyoyi da labarai cikin ƙarnuka da yawa. Shi ne kuma hedkwatar na Cibiyar Littattafai, cibiya ta musamman dangane da tarihin adabi, bugawa da kuma binciken sabbin dandamali da tsarin buga takardu.

Heildelberg, jamus

Meke damunta heidelberg ya zama garin adabi? A nan aka haifi jami'a ta farko a Jamus, Jami'ar Ruperto Carola. Ya kasance cibiyar koyo da adabi koyaushe kuma tana karɓar baƙuncin marubuta kamar su Goethe, Clemens Brentano, Bettina von Arnim da Friedrich Hölderlin. Hakanan shine shimfiɗar jariri na ƙarni na XNUMX roman roman soyayya.

Granada (Spain)

Tun shekara ta 2014 Granada birni ne na wallafe-wallafe, Mutanen Spain na farko da suka karɓi lambar yabo Me take da shi Granada ya zama garin adabi? Zuwa ga marubucin sanannen duniya An kashe Federico García Lorca a lokacin mulkin Franco saboda yanayin luwadi da akidarsa ta bangaren hagu. Taron jama'a da al'adu, gami da bikin Granada Noir wanda ya mamaye kowane kusurwa na birni tare da samfuran al'adu daban-daban, ba kawai na adabi ba, wanda Jesús Lens ya jagoranta.

Prague (Chekia)

Meke damunta Prague ya zama garin adabi? Shahararrun marubuta kamar Franz Kafka, Max Bod, Rainer Maria Rilke, ko ba shakka? Milan kundera. Jami'ar sa, Jami'ar Charles ce tsohuwar jami'a a tsakiyar Turai.

Ulyanovsk (Rasha)

An san shi da zama garin haihuwar Lenin, menene Ulyanovsk ya zama garin adabi? Ya shahara saboda kasancewar garin marubucin littafin Ivan Goncharov, mai kirkira Oblomov, saurayi kuma malalacin malami wanda ya kwana a gado. A cikin gari ana gudanar da bikin adabi ("Ku tashi daga shimfida") don girmama shi. Akwai kantunan sayar da littattafai sama da 30, dakunan karatu na jama'a 39, Babban Makarantar Musamman ta Ulyanovsk, wani dakin karatu na kyauta a filin jirgin sama da kuma dakunan karatun makarantu sama da 200.

Baghdad (Iraki)

Kodayake kamar alama zaɓi ne mai ban mamaki da farko, menene Bagadag ya zama garin adabi? Tarihin da ya gabata tare da tasirin tasirin adabi a yankin, kamar yadda Baghdad ya yi ɗayan mahimman dakunan karatu na zamanin da: Bayt al-Hikma da aka kafa a karni na XNUMX miladiyya, wanda yake da tarin tarin littattafai a duniya a tsakiyar karni na XNUMX.

Haihuwar ɗayan manyan mawaƙan Balaraba, Abu Al Tayeb Al Mutanabbi (ƙarni na XNUMX).

Tartu (Estonia).

Meke damunta Tartu ya zama garin adabi? Birni ne majagaba a cikin kare al'adun ƙasar da Estoniyanci a matsayin yare. A duk shekara ana gudanar da bukukuwa daban-daban na adabi. Cibiyoyi biyu suna haɓaka karatu da al'adun Estoniya: Jami'ar Tartu da Gidan Tarihi na Estonia.

Lviv (Yukren)

Meke damunta Lviv ya zama garin adabi? Yawaitar shagunan littattafai da dakunan karatu: shagunan sayar da littattafai guda 45, dakunan karatu 174 da dakunan adana kayan tarihi 54 da kuma jama'a masu ruwa da tsaki a rayuwar al'adun garin. His En Lvis shine mafi tsufa gidan buga takardu (1586) har yanzu yana aiki.

Ljubljana (Slovenia).

Meke damunta Ljubljana ya zama garin adabi? Kunnawa  Ljubljana ta karbi bakuncin al'adu sama da 10.000, kiɗa, wasan kwaikwayo da fasaha waɗanda suka haɗa da bukukuwan duniya 14. Kowane ɗan ƙasa yana ziyartar Laburaren Karamar Hukumar aƙalla sau biyar a shekara. Ljubljana sananne ne ga al'adun jami'a.

Barcelona, ​​garin Sifen da mafi yawan al'adun wallafe-wallafe, wanda UNESCO ta sanya wa suna Literary City.

Barcelona, ​​Spain)

Meke damunta Barcelona ya zama garin adabi? Bukukuwan adabi guda hudu, gami da Barcelona Negra da kuma ingantaccen tarihin wallafe-wallafe tun zamanin da, sune ke karbar bakuncin hedkwatar manyan kungiyoyin buga littattafai a kasar. Ya ba da girma ga manyan marubuta kamar su Manuel Montalbán, Alicia Giménez-Barlett, mahaliccin 'yar sanda ta farko a cikin littafin laifukan Sifen, Eduardo Mendoza, Ana María Matute, Carlos Ruiz Zafón, Mercé Rodoreda, Ildefonso Falcones ko Víctor del Arbol, jarumin zane-zane na Faransa da wasiƙu, da sauransu. Tana da kantuna fiye da 122 da kuma ɗumbin ɗakunan karatu na jama'a. Bikin kowace shekara ranar Sant Jordi, ranar da al'ada ce bada littattafai da wardi.

Nottingham (Burtaniya)

Me Nottingham ya zama birni na adabi? Bayan kasancewarsa shimfiɗar jariri na Robin Hood, ga marubuta kamar Lord Byron ko DH Lawrence. Hakanan dakunan karatu 18 da kantunan littattafai masu zaman kansu da yawa, ban da bikin adabi Bikin Nottingham na Kalmomi.

Óbidos (Fotigal)

Me Óbidos ya zama birni na rubutu? A wajen hanyoyin da ake bi na yawon bude ido na Fotigal, kayan adon rubutu ne, tare da wuraren adana littattafai a wuraren da ba za a iya tsammani ba: Na farko shi ne Cocin Santiago, tare da littattafai sama da 40.000. Daga ciki ne, aka ƙirƙiri sabbin wuraren sayar da littattafai a wurare masu ban mamaki, kamar a cikin kasuwa ko a gidan giya.

Montevideo, Uruguay)

Menene Montevideo ya zama birni na adabi? Marubuta kamar Eduardo Galeano, Mario Benedetti ko Juan Carlos Onetti. Yana da babbar Kasuwar littafin Lahadi: Tristán Narvaja.

Milano, Italiya)

Menene Milan ta zama birni na adabi? Milan na ɗaya daga cikin cibiyoyin manyan masu bugawa, wasu daga cikinsu suna da mahimmanci na tarihi. Garin zama na Darío Fo, Kyautar Nobel.

Bucheon (Koriya ta Kudu)

Menene Bucheon ya zama birni na adabi? Al'adar adabi tana da alaƙa da Byun yeongro da Chong Chi-yong, zakarun mahimmin motsi na waƙa na farkon rabin karni na XNUMX.

Quebec (Kanada)

Menene Québec ya zama birni na rubutu? Tare da wadataccen rayuwar al'adu, wallafe-wallafensa suna nuna harshen Faransanci, Ingilishi da Aboriginal.

Liteungiyar Adabi da Tarihi ta Québec (1824) da Cibiyar Kanada ta Quebec (1848) suna da mahimmiyar rawa a rayuwar adabin ƙasar. Birni ne wanda mafi yawan gidajen buga littattafan ƙasar suke zaune.

Seattle (Amurka)

An fi sani da fasaha fiye da adabi, menene Seattle ya zama garin adabi? Kodayake shahararsa ba ta fito daga gare ta ba, ɗayan manyan abubuwan jan hankali shi ne kantunan littattafai da yawan wallafe-wallafe da ayyukan da ke kewaye da karatu.

Utrecht (Holland)

Meke damunta Utrecht ya zama garin adabi? A 1473 aka buga littafi na farko na Arewacin Netherlands, a 1516 ya bayyana tarin wakoki na farko da mace ta rubuta kuma a cikin 1892 an buɗe babban ɗakin karatu na farko na masarautar, a tsakanin sauran manyan sanannun abubuwa.

Bikin murna tsakanin 20 da 30 abubuwan adabi na kowane wata, wanda ya shafi yara da manya kuma yana da shagunan sayar da littattafai guda 56, dakunan karatu 26 kuma yana da gidajan masu shela sama da 200.

Manchester, United Kingdom)

Meke damunta Manchester ya zama garin adabi? Manchester tana da biyar tarihi dakunan karatu, ban sha'awa ba kawai don kudaden su ba, har ma ga gine-ginen da suke. Da jayayyarsa jauhari shine Dandalin John Rylands, daga 1899, a cikin salon neo-gothic. Baitulmali don gilashin gilashin gilashi da rufin rufi, amma, sama da duka, don abin da yake riƙe a ciki: papyri na Masar, littattafan Coptic ko na Girka, rubuce-rubucen da aka yi a zamanin da, bugun Canterbury Tatsuniyoyi (1476), Gutenberg Bible (1455) ko littafi mai ban sha'awa game da tsayin tsuntsaye masu tsayi na Amurka guda (1830).

Durban (Afirka ta Kudu)

Meke damunta Durban ya zama garin adabi? Wannan birni ya karɓi bakuncin marubuta da yawa, kamar wanda ya fara lashe kyautar Nobel ta Afirka, Alan Paton, ko kuma mawaƙi Bessie Head. Ana gudanar da bukukuwan adabi masu mahimmanci kamar su Poetry Africa anan.

Lillehammer (Norway)

Meke damunta Lillehammer ya zama garin adabi? Tare da mazauna 27.000 kawai, a cikin karni na XNUMX ya zama matattarar masu zane da marubuta, wasu daga cikinsu Gwanayen Kyautar Nobel na Adabi kamar Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson da Sigrid Undset.

Muna so Duk mafi kyau ga shirin Segovian don Segovia ita ce ta gaba don shiga jerin.


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