Labarin baki

Labarin baki.

Labarin baki.

"Littafin labari na duniyar masu aikata laifi", tare da waccan jumlar Raymond Chandler ya bayyana littafin labarin aikata laifi a cikin rubutun Saurin fasaha na kisa (1950). Da yawa suna ɗaukarsa a matsayin bambancin "tarihin" ko labarin ɗan sanda na Burtaniya. Ga waɗansu, kawai "ma'ana ce" da aka kirkira don gano wallafe-wallafen da ke nuna masu binciken ko masu binciken inda dole ne a magance kisan kai.

Ba koyaushe masu karɓa ko masu ilimi "ke ilimantar da shi" suka karɓa ba tun bayan bayyanarsa a cikin shekaru goma na uku na ƙarni na XNUMX. Kodayake wasu Malaman tarihi suna nuni da asalin wannan ƙaramar hukumar a cikin 1841, tare da buga Laifukan titi de Edgar Allan Poe. A kowane hali, labarin aikata laifuka koyaushe yana da kyakkyawan lambobi a cikin tallace-tallace.

Kafin da bayan Kulle Black

Waɗanda suke ɗaukan littafin tarihin aikata laifi a matsayin salo ya bambanta da labarin masu binciken Burtaniya, suna nuni zuwa shekara ta 1920 a matsayin mafarinsu. Godiya ga kafuwar mujallar Kulle Black a Amurka. Sanarwa ce ɓangaren litattafan almara cike da labaru iri-iri da jigogi, ingantattu ga sabbin marubutan labarai masu bincike.

Jinsi daya? Bambanci tsakanin aikata laifi da laifi labari

Sunaye kamar Arthur Conan Doyle da Agatha Christie, ya taimaka wajen tsara littafin aikata laifi (ba tare da la'akari da ko an rarraba su a matsayin marubutan wannan salon ba). A wannan ma'anar (ba tare da tsari na tsari ba) an bayyana wasu bangarorin bambance-bambancen tsakanin ƙungiyoyi biyu a ƙasa. Abubuwan da aka ambata akai-akai don tallafawa matsayin "masu raba".

Saiti

Christie Agatha.

Christie Agatha.

A cikin mafi yawan lokuta, Littattafan Burtaniya an saita su a cikin burgesois da kuma tsarin mulkin gargajiya. A cikin yanayin inda mai martaba ke da takamaiman nauyi a cikin yawancin waɗannan makircin. Akasin haka, a cikin labarai black aikin yana faruwa a cikin keɓaɓɓun yanayin.

Yanayi

Marubutan Amurka waɗanda ke iya warwarewa tare da salon gargajiya suna ba da kwatancen wuce gona da iri. Zai yiwu a san dalla-dalla wasu unguwannin Los Angeles ko New York ta hanyar karanta waɗannan labaran. Suna iya ma bayar da bayanan da ba a san su sosai ba a wasu wurare a cikin birni ɗaya. Ba kamar labaran Burtaniya ba, inda ainihin wuraren suke saiti ne mai sauƙi.

Duk da yake yana iya samun wasu takamaiman mahimmanci a wasu lokuta, yawanci yanayi ne kawai. Alal misali: Mutuwa a Kogin Niluby Agatha Christie.

Personajes

A cikin littafin aikata laifuka iyakoki tsakanin nagarta da mugunta sun yadu sosai, kusan babu su. Protwararrun (an wasan (masu binciken waɗanda ba dole ba ne masu bincike ta hanyar kasuwanci) sun keta ƙa'idodi don warware batun kuma ba tare da yin sakaci da amfanin kanka ba.

Hakanan, abokan hamayya na iya zama masu kirki da kirki. Bayan haka, yanayin ɗabi'a gaba ɗaya yana cikin rahamar hukuncin mai karatu. Kowane ɗayan yana yanke shawara - kuma yana tabbatar da gaskiyar - yadda suke fahimtar mutane a labarin. A gefe guda, haruffan Ingilishi babu makawa sun kasu tsakanin "mai kyau da mara kyau", ba tare da shubuha ba.

Sanarwar zamantakewa

Edgar Allan Poe.

Edgar Allan Poe.

Littafin labarin aikata laifi ya taso ne a kwanakin bayan yaƙi. Har ila yau, a cikin yanayin da Babban ressionacin ciki ya daidaita. Saboda haka, haƙiƙanin halayyar mutane a yawancin waɗannan asusun ya zama zargi na zamantakewar jama'a. Batun ado da rashin annashuwa game da rikice rikice rikice rikice a Amurka.

Tsarin jari-hujja ya sami kyakkyawan ɓangare na bugu. Kodayake ba tare da an shagala da babbar manufar ba, wacce ita ce gabatar da labari mai nishadi cike da aiki da tashin hankali. Saboda haka, wakiltar ɗan hutu ne da salon "ƙirar" ta jinkirin riwayar hakan yana ba mai karatu isasshen lokacin da zai “tauna” akan dukkan bayanai.

Laifin: wani labari

Andreu Martín ne, mashahurin marubucin litattafan Sifen ne da ke baƙar labarin almara, wanda ya yi amfani da wannan kalmar don nuni ga mahimmancin laifukan da aka ruwaito a cikin labaran wannan nau'in. Ba komai bane face uzuri, ƙofar kama gaskiya kuma masu karatu su gano ko suyi zaton suna rayuwa ne a cikin al'ummar mutanen kirki.

Likeari kamar "ainihin duniya"

Yanayin da ake rubutawa na littafin aikata laifuka galibi yana nuna cututtukan bil'adama na yau da kullun. Saboda haka, cin hanci da rashawa, son kai da dabbanci suna kan gaba. Hakanan, motsawar masu laifi koyaushe suna yin biyayya da raunin ɗan adam, zunubi.

Haka kuma ana roƙon inuwar ruhun ɗan adam zuwa: zafi, fushi, ramuwar gayya, yunwa don iko, daidaikun mutane, da sha’awaWannan ba neman mafi kyau bane. Babu wuri don jita-jita game da nau'in "ƙarshen yana tabbatar da hanyoyin." Amma wannan ƙa'idar ce da jaruman ke amfani da ita don zuwa ga gaskiya da yin adalci.

Na farko antiheroes

Antihero abu ne mai kyau sosai awannan zamanin saboda silima. Kyawawan haruffa basa iya zama masu siyasa daidai. Amma tun kafin Deadpool ya zama bayanin, "bakaken litattafan rubutu" sun riga sun shiga wannan hanyar.

Bambancin da masu binciken "gargajiya" kamar su Sherlock Holmes ko Hercules Puirot sananne ne., jaruman litattafan aikata manyan laifuka haruffa ne masu takaici. A saboda wannan dalili, ba su yi imani da tsarin ba (suna fada da shi a lokacin da suka sami dama) kuma suna da saurin daukar adalci da kansu.

Babu makawa

Don fahimtar asalin littafin laifin, Akwai marubuta uku waɗanda nazarin su ke da mahimmanci. Na farkon su shine Carroll John Daly. Ana ɗaukar mahaifin wannan nau'in almara na adabi. Dashiell Hammet da Raymond Chandler sune sauran sunayen biyu.

Masu binciken

Na farko shine mahaliccin Sam Spade. Wani mai kirkirarren labari ne wanda shahararsa ta karu sosai saboda fina-finan kuma ya daɗe yana san Amurka sosai fiye da Sherlock Holmes. Humpry Bogart ya siffanta shi a cikin tsarin karba-karba na sabon labari, Falcon na Malta. A wannan bangaren, Chandler ya bar sunan Philip Marlowe don zuriya.

A halin yanzu kuma mai lafiya jinsi

Stieg Larsson.

Stieg Larsson.

Littafin laifin ya kasance a cikin tsaka-tsalle a tsakiyar karni na ashirin. Labarun binciken - tare da James Bond a hular kwano - sun saci ɓangare mai kyau. Ari, a wancan lokacin ana ɗaukarsa adabi ne na "na biyu", an tsara shi ne don nishadantar da talakawa masu aiki. Don ƙarin inri, mujallar Kulle Black Ya bace.

Koyaya, sabon alif ya ga sabon suna. Wanene, duk da rashin mutuwarsa, ya ba da hangen nesa na Turai game da jinsi. Tabbas, ba shine na farko ba, amma shine mafi kyawun alamu na shekarun da suka gabata. Labari ne game da Stieg Larsson da saga Millennium. Akwai sauran marubuta masu aiki da yawa waɗanda ke ƙirƙirar sabbin makirci, sun isa su keɓance musu keɓaɓɓen rubutu.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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