"Alice a cikin Wonderland." Rashin fahimtar Lewis Carroll na gargajiya.

Alice a cikin Wonderland

Duk da shahararsa, Alice a cikin Wonderland labari ne, aƙalla, rashin fahimta. Ya kasance koyaushe haka tun lokacin da aka buga shi a cikin 1865 daga masanin lissafin Ingilishi, mai salo, mai daukar hoto da marubuta. Lewis Carroll, wanda sunansa na ainihi shine Charles Lutwidge Dodgson. Little iya Carroll kansa tunanin cewa abubuwan da ke faruwa na alter ego Aikin adabi na Alicia Liddell, yarinyar da aka yi mata wahayi don ƙirƙirar jarumarta, zai ƙare da jin daɗin irin wannan farin jini.

Idan akwai wani abu mai kyau game da wannan labarin, wannan shine, kamar yadda za mu gani a ƙasa, yara da manya zasu iya more shi. Bayan duk, Alice a cikin Wonderland ba kawai ɗayan mafi kyawun tatsuniyoyin gaskiya bane a can - kuma daidai ta hanyar rashin marmarin zama sama da shi, ya sami damar zama fiye da yadda yake tsammani-, amma kuma ɗayan ingantattun litattafan da adabin wauta ya samar.

Shin babu wanda zaiyi tunanin yara?

"Kuma ɗabi'ar wannan labarin… Kai, na manta!"

"Wataƙila ba ni da halin kirki," Alicia ta yi ƙarfin halin lura.

"Tabbas yana da ɗabi'a!" Bayyana Duchess. Komai yana da dabi'unsa, al'amarin shine nemo shi.

Daga cikin manyan sukar da ta samu Alice a cikin ban mamakis, musamman a lokacin buga shi, mun sami hakan ba shi da ɗabi'a. Tatsuniyoyi ne gabanin lokacinsa, ba tare da iska mai kwarjini ba na sauran tatsuniyoyi.. Marubucin bai ɗora ɗabi'ar ba, amma kowane ɗayan na iya samun daban a cikin shafuka.

Wannan zance na soyayya yana ba shi damar gabatar da halaye na rashin hankali, na rashin hankali, da na rashin hankali ba tare da wata damuwa ba. Babu ɗayansu da ke da niyyar koya wa Alice darasi, kawai sanya shi shakkar abin har sai lokacin da ya ɗauki "gaskiya" da "hankali."

Muhimmancin harshe

"Kana nufin zaka iya samun maganin tatsuniyar?" Hare na Maris ya ce.

Alicia ta amsa: "Daidai ne."

"Idan haka ne, dole ne ka faɗi ra'ayinka," kuregen ya nace.

"Abin da nake yi ke nan," in ji Alice, "ko kuma aƙalla ina tsammanin abin da nake faɗi, wanda ya kasance daidai da abu ɗaya."

"Ta yaya zai zama iri ɗaya?" Bayyana mai ƙyamar. Shin daidai yake da ce "Ina ga abin da nake ci" da "Ina cin abin da na gani"?

"Ta yaya zai zama ɗaya!" Yayi Waƙar Hare-Haure. Shin daidai yake da ce "Ina son abin da nake da shi" da kuma "Ina da abin da nake so"?

Ya bayyana, jim kadan bayan mun karanta labari, cewa Lewis Carroll ya ba da mahimmanci ga harshe. Mafi yawan abubuwan ban dariya, kuma ba mai ban dariya bane, yanayin da ke faruwa a ciki sakamakon su ne Wasannin kalmomi ko na rashin fahimtar harshe.

Saboda wannan, marubuta da yawa sun so ganin a cikin Carroll wani mai gabatar da ilimin falsafa Wittgenstein, musamman dangane da ka'idarsa akan isomorphism ko "ainihi tsakanin harshe da gaskiya." A gefe guda kuma, shahararren maganar da ya yi “duk abin da za a iya fada ana iya fada a fili; kuma abin da ba za a iya magana game da shi ba, yana da kyau a rufe shi », daga Tractatus logico-falsafa, ana amfani da shi a wurare da yawa na labaran.

Murmushin hutu na Cheshire Cat, ɗayan shahararrun sakandare na Alice a cikin Wonderland.

Tana sauka ta ramin zomo

"To, ya kwana biyu!" Mai Hatter yayi huci. Na riga na gaya muku cewa man shanu ba ya aiki! Ya kara da cewa, yana kallon Kurege.

–Wannan kuwa daga mejor inganci, ”in ji ɗan ƙaramin kurege.

"Tabbas, amma dole ne man shanu ya sami ɗan gutsuri," ya ƙara da Hatter; Bai kamata ku shafawa agogon wuka da wuka ba.

Hare na Maris ya ɗauki agogon, ya bincika shi sosai, kuma ya jefa shi cikin nadama; Sannan ya sake bincika shi, amma ba zai iya tunanin wani abin da ya fi maimaita abin da ya faɗa a baya ba:

"Ya kasance man shanu daga mejor inganci!

Za'a iya bayar da dalilai da yawa dalilin Alice a cikin ban mamakis labari ne mai kyau, amma zan rufe da mafi bayyane duka: yana da nishaɗi. Labari ne da bai taba buwaya ba, wanda yake ba da mamaki, kuma yana kan hauhawa har zuwa karshensa. Yawancin lokuta muna mantawa cewa babban dalilin karanta littafi shine saboda yana da daɗi, wani abu da ke tunatar da mu, kuma fiye da cinma, aikin Carroll.

Abin da kallon farko ya zama kamar labarin yara ya ƙunshi labari mai ban sha'awa. Amma fa kar mu yaudari kanmu: labarin yara ne. Kodayake wannan ba yana nufin cewa manya ba zasu iya more shi ba, tunda a cikin gaskiyarta akwai karfinta da kyanta. Nietzsche ta ce "akwai ruhohin da ke laka ruwanta don ya zama suna da zurfi." Idan akwai Alice a cikin Wonderland kishiyar kawai ce: kamar kallon ƙasan kogi, watakila wauta da rashin hankali, amma bayyane.

"Wannan abin hauka ne ga jayayya duk waɗannan masu sukar suna da!" Alicia ta yi gunaguni. Shi ne cewa suke haukatar da ita! […] Babu komai… bashi da amfani a yi masa magana! Alicia tana faɗar magana da ƙarfi. Yana da cikakkiyar mahaukaci!


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