Abdulrazak Gurnah

Zanzibar teku

Zanzibar teku

Abdulrazak Gurnah marubuci dan kasar Tanzaniya ne wanda ya lashe kyautar Nobel a fannin adabi na shekarar 2021. Cibiyar koyar da ilimin adabi ta kasar Sweden ta bayyana cewa an zabi marubucin ne saboda "bayyani mai motsi game da illolin mulkin mallaka da makomar 'yan gudun hijira a cikin gibin da ke tsakanin al'adu da nahiyoyi ... " . Shekaru 18 kenan da dan Afrika na karshe - John Maxwell Coetzee a 2003 - ya lashe wannan muhimmiyar lambar yabo.

Gurnah ya yi fice don yin bayanin ta hanyar da ta dace kuma mara kyau hanyar jigilar waɗanda yunwa da yaƙi suka raba da muhallansu daga bakin tekun Afirka zuwa Turai, da kuma yadda suka isa “ƙasar alkawari” har yanzu dole ne su shawo kan tekun son zuciya, cikas da tarko. . A yau ya buga litattafai guda goma da adadi mai yawa na labarai da gajerun labarai, duk an rubuta su cikin Turanci. —Ko da yake Swahili yarensa ne. Tun daga 2006 ya kasance memba na Royal Literature Society, wata ƙungiya a Burtaniya da aka sadaukar don karatu da watsa adabi.

Cikakken tarihin rayuwar marubucin, Abdulrazak Gurnah

Yara da karatu

An haifi Abdulrazak Gurnah a ranar 20 ga Disamba, 1948 a tsibirin Zanzibar (tsibirin Tanzania). Yana da shekara 18, sai da ya gudu daga kasarsa zuwa kasar Ingila saboda zaluncin da ake yi wa musulmi. Tuni a kan ƙasar Ingilishi, ya bi manyan makarantu a Kwalejin Church Christ kuma a 1982 ya kammala digirin digirgir a Jami'ar Kent.

Farfesan kwaleji

Shekaru da yawa, Gurnah ta sadaukar da rayuwarta wajen koyarwa a matakin jami'a a fannin nazarin Turanci.. Tsawon shekaru uku a jere (1980-1983) ya koyar a Najeriya, a Jami'ar Bayero Kano (BUK). Ya kasance farfesa na Ingilishi da adabin postcolonial, tare da kasancewa daraktan sashen Ingilishi a Jami'ar Kent, ayyukan da ya riƙe har ya yi ritaya.

Abdulrazak Gurnah

Abdulrazak Gurnah

Ayyukan bincikensa sun mayar da hankali kan postcolonialism, haka kuma a mulkin mallaka da aka yi wa Afirka, Caribbean da Indiya. A halin yanzu, muhimman jami'o'i suna amfani da ayyukansa a matsayin kayan koyarwa. Darussan da ƙwararrun malamai suke koyarwa sun yi fice, kamar: Patricia Bastida (UIB), Maurice O'Connor (UCA), Antonio Ballesteros (UNED) da Juan Ignacio de la Oliva (ULL), don suna kaɗan.

Kwarewar marubuci

A cikin aikinsa na marubuci ya ƙirƙiri gajerun labarai da kasidu, duk da haka, litattafansa sune suka fi ba shi girma. Daga 1987 zuwa yanzu ya buga ayyukan labarai guda 10 a cikin wannan nau'in. Ayyukansa uku na farko -Ƙwaƙwalwar Tashi (1987), Hanyar Mahajjata (1988) y Dottie (1990) - suna da jigogi iri ɗaya: suna nuna nuances daban -daban na gogewar baƙi a Burtaniya.

A cikin 1994 ya buga ɗayan littattafan da aka fi sani da su, Aljanna, wanda ya kasance dan wasan karshe na babbar lambar yabo ta Burtaniya a cikin 2001. Wannan aikin shi ne farkon da aka kawo cikin harshen Sipaniya -Me Aljanna-, an buga shi a Barcelona a 1997 kuma Sofia Carlota Noguera ne ya fassara ta. Wasu laƙabi biyu na Gurnah da aka kawo cikin yaren Cervantes sune: Shiru mai ban tsoro (1998) y A bakin teku (2007).

Gurnah - wanda ake la'akari da "muryar 'yan gudun hijira" - ya kuma yi fice ga sauran litattafai, kamar: Ta bakin Teku (2001), Rashin haihuwa (2005) y Zuciyar tsakuwa (2017). a 2020 gabatar da shi aikin labari na ƙarshe: Rayuwa bayan, masu sukar Birtaniyya sun yi la'akari da su kamar: "Kokarin ba da murya ga wanda aka manta."

Salon marubuci

Ayyukan marubucin an rubuta su a cikin karin magana ba tare da sharar gida ba; a cikin su sha’awarsu ga batutuwa kamar gudun hijira, ainihi da tushensu a bayyane yake. Litattafansa sun nuna illar mulkin mallaka na Gabashin Afirka da abin da mazaunanta ke sha. Ana ganin wannan a matsayin yanayin rayuwarsa ta baƙin haure, babban mahimmin abin da ya bambanta shi da sauran marubutan Afirka na mazauna ƙasashen Burtaniya.

Haka kuma, Anders Olsson - Shugaban kwamitin Nobel - ya yi la'akari da cewa haruffan da Gurnah ya ƙirƙira an gina su sosai. Dangane da wannan, yana mai cewa: "Tsakanin rayuwar da suka bari da kuma rayuwa mai zuwa, suna fuskantar wariyar launin fata da son zuciya, amma kuma suna shawo kan kansu don yin shiru kan gaskiya ko sake sabunta tarihin rayuwarsu don gujewa rikice -rikice da gaskiya."

Nobel wanda ya ba duniya mamaki

Kyautar Nobel a cikin Adabi

Kyautar Nobel a cikin Adabi

Ko a duniyar adabi, mutane da yawa suna tambayar "Wane ne Abdulrazak Gurnah?" ko "Me yasa marubuci da ba a sani ba ya lashe kyautar?" Gaskiyar ita ce, akwai isassun dalilai da yawa da suka sa Gurnah ya zama 2021 Afirka ta biyar da ta lashe gasar Lambar yabo ta Nobel a adabi. Koyaya, komai yana nuna cewa juri'a ta yanke hukunci bisa jigon da marubucin ya yi magana.

Gurnah Powers

Kasancewar mutane da yawa ba su san halin da marubucin Tanzaniya ke ciki ba, hakan ba zai rage hazaƙarsa a matsayin marubuci ba. Ƙarfinsa na harshe, haɗe da hazakar da yake iya ɗauka a kowane layi, ya sa ya zama marubuci kusa da mai karatu.. A cikin ayyukansa an tabbatar da jajircewarsa na tabbatar da gaskiyar kasarsa ta haihuwa da kuma ‘yan uwansa, wanda ke kara habaka dabi’ar dan Adam ta alkalami da alakar abubuwan da ya faru da shi da kuma aikin adabinsa. Kowane labari yana nuna mahallin da ke tattare da yake-yaken da aka sha a nahiyar.

Amma me yasa Gurnah ta bambanta? To, marubucin ya ƙi sake ƙirƙira sabbin labarai game da abin da ya faru tsakanin Ingila da Afirka. Da littattafansa ya nuna sabon hangen nesa na nahiyar Afirka da mutanenta, tare da ɗimbin abubuwan da 'yan kaɗan suka yi la'akari da su, wanda ya karya ra'ayi da kuma tabbatar da adadi na mutanen da aka yi hijira a idanun waɗanda suka karanta. Abdulrazak ya tabo gaskiyar mulkin mallaka da sakamakonsa a yau - hijira ɗaya ce kawai daga cikinsu, amma ta jiki da jini.

Kyautar da wasu kasashe suka mamaye

Ba abin mamaki ba ne cewa tun lokacin da aka kirkiro lambar yabo ta Nobel don adabi a 1901, yawancin masu cin nasara sun kasance Turai ko Arewacin Amirka. Faransa ta zama ta farko tare da marubuta 15 da suka ci lambar yabo, Amurka na biye da ita a hankali tare da 13 yayin da Burtaniya ke da 12. Kuma, kamar yadda aka ambata a gaba, 'yan Afirka biyar ne kacal zuwa yanzu aka karrama da wannan mashahurin yabo.

Shekaru goma sha takwas sun wuce eAfirka ta ƙarshe se ya tashi tare da wannan muhimmiyar lambar yabo: John Maxwell Coetzee. Kafin dan Afirka ta Kudu, a shekarar 1986 dan Najeriya Wole Soyinka, a 1988 Naguib Mahfouz dan kasar Masar da kuma mace ta farko a Afirka, Nadine Gordimer, a 1991.

Yanzu, Me yasa akwai rashin daidaituwa sosai? ba tare da shakka ba, haka ne wani abu mai wuyar amsawa. Koyaya, ana tsammanin waɗannan shekarun masu zuwa za su ga canje -canje a cikin Kwalejin Sweden, saboda, a babban bangare, ga abin kunya game da rashin daidaituwa da cin zarafin da ya faru a cikin 2018. Saboda haka, bayan shekara guda an ƙirƙiri sabon kwamiti da nufin canji. hangen nesa kuma ku guji yanayin rashin mutunci. Dangane da wannan, Anders Olsson ya bayyana:

“Muna bude idanunmu ga marubutan da za a iya kiran su bayan mulkin mallaka. Duban mu na fadada kan lokaci. KUMA manufar Kwalejin ita ce ta ƙarfafa tunaninmu na adabi a cikin zurfi. Misali, wallafe -wallafe a duniya bayan mulkin mallaka ”.

Wadannan sabbin ka'idoji sun haifar da ganin Afirka a gaban manyan mutane. Ayyukansa na musamman na musamman - Tare da batutuwa masu wahala amma na gaske - sun ba kwamitin Nobel damar rarrabasu a matsayin "daya daga cikin fitattun marubutan bayan mulkin mallaka a duniya… ”.

Gasa mai ƙarfi

A wannan shekara akwai sunayen mashahuran adabi a muhallin. Marubuta irin su: Ngugi Wa Thiong'o, Haruki Murakami, Javier Marias, Scholastique Mukasonga, Mia Couto, Margaret Atwood, Annie Ernaux, da sauransu. Ba a banza ba abin mamaki ne ga nasarar Gurnah, wanda, ko da yake ya cancanta, ya taso a cikin dajin da ke da tsarki na tsarkaka.

Javier Marías ne adam wata.

Javier Marías ne adam wata.

Abubuwan marubucin bayan lashe kyautar Nobel

Bayan karbar kyautar. marubucin Tanzaniya ba ya nufin yin watsi da jigon da yake da shi kyautar Nobel. Tare da fitarwa kuna jin ƙarin himma don bayyana ra'ayin ku kan batutuwa daban -daban da tsinkayar ku ta duniya a bayyane.

A cikin wata hira a London, ya ce: "Na rubuta game da waɗannan sharuɗɗan saboda ina son yin rubutu game da mu'amalar ɗan adam da abin da mutane ke shiga yayin da suke sake gina rayuwarsu ”.

Latsa abubuwan gani

Nadin Abdulrazak Gurnah a matsayin wanda ya lashe kyautar Nobel ya ba da mamaki ga yankin Sweden da ma duniya baki ɗaya. Marubucin ba ya cikin masu yiwuwa masu nasara, tun da ba a bayyana ayyukansa da kwararru ba a cikin adabi. Tunanin wannan shine maganganun da suka fito a cikin manema labarai bayan nadin, daga cikin waɗannan zamu iya haskaka:

  • "Zaɓin sihiri na Kwalejin Sweden". Bayanin (Expressen)
  • "Tsoro da rudani lokacin da aka gabatar da sunan wanda ya lashe kyautar Nobel a Adabi." Diary Diary (Aftonbladet)
  • "Nagode Abdulrazak Gurnah! Kyautar Nobel ta 2021 a cikin adabi ta cancanci sosai. ” National EN (Jorge Iván Garduño)
  • "Lokaci ya yi da za mu gane cewa wadanda ba farare ba za su iya rubutu." Jaridar Sweden (Svenska Dagbladet)
  • "Abdulrazak Gurnah, tauraruwar da babu wanda ya ci ko sisin kwabo". Mujallar Lelatria (Javier Claure Covarrubias)
  • "Labarin lambar yabo ta Nobel don Gurnah an yi bikin ne daga marubuta da masana da suka dade suna jayayya cewa aikinsa ya cancanci karatu mai yawa." The New York Times

Paraíso, Gurnah mafi kyawun aiki

A cikin 1994 Gurnah ya gabatar da Paraíso, littafinsa na huɗu kuma na farko wanda aka fassara matani zuwa Mutanen Espanya. Da wannan labari, marubucin Afirka ya sami karɓuwa sosai a fagen adabi, kasancewar ya zuwa yanzu mafi wakilcin halittarsa. An ba da labarin da muryar masani; cakuda almara ce tare da tuna ƙuruciyar Gurnah a ƙasarsu ta asali.

Tsakanin layi, Gurnah yayi Allah wadai da munanan ayyukan bautar da ake yiwa yara, wanda ya faru tsawon shekaru a yankin Afirka. Dukkanin sun haɗu da bi da bi tare da kyawawan dabi'u, fauna da almara waɗanda ke cikin al'adun yankin.

Don ganewa, marubucin ya ƙaura zuwa Tanzaniya, kodayake yayin da yake can ya ce: “Ban yi tafiya don tattara bayanai ba, sai don in mayar da kurar cikin hancina”. Wannan yana nuna rashin musun asalinsa; akwai tunawa da kuma amincewa da kyakkyawar Afirka, duk da haka, a ƙarƙashin gaskiyar da ke cike da rikice-rikice masu tsanani.

Wasu ƙwararrun masana sun yarda cewa shirin yana nuna «lbalaga da balaga na ɗan Afirka, labarin soyayya mai ban tausayi da kuma labarin lalatar al'adar Afirka. saboda Turawan mulkin mallaka ”.

Synopsis

Makircin Taurari Yusuf, yaro dan shekara 12 da aka haifa a farkon shekarun 1900 a Kawa (garin almara, Tanzania). Mahaifinsa Shi ne manajan otal kuma bashi ne ga wani dan kasuwa mai suna Aziz, wanda hamshakin attajirin Larabawa ne. Ta hanyar rashin iya fuskantar wannan alƙawari, an tilasta masa ya ba da dansa a matsayin wani ɓangare na biya.

Bayan tafiya mai motsi, yaron ya tafi bakin teku tare da "kawunsa Aziz". Can ya fara rayuwarsa a matsayin rehani (bawan wucin gadi da ba a biya ba), tare da abokinsa Khalil da sauran bayi. Babban aikinsa shine aiki da sarrafa kantin Aziz, inda kayayyakin da dan kasuwa ke siyarwa a gefen.

Baya ga wadannan ayyuka. Yusuf dole ne ya kula da lambun maigidansa mai katanga, wurin da yake da kyau da jin dadi. Da dare, ya gudu zuwa wurin Adnin inda ta mafarkai yake nema ya samo tushensa, na rayuwar da aka kwace daga gare shi. Yusuf ya girma ya zama kyakkyawan saurayi kuma yana marmarin soyayya marar bege, yayin da wasu ke so.

Yana da shekara 17 Yusuf ya fara tafiya ta biyu tare da ayarin ‘yan kasuwa a fadin Afirka ta tsakiya da Kogin Kwango. A lokacin rangadin akwai jerin cikas a ciki wanda marubucin ya kama wani ɓangare na al'adun Afirka. Dabbobin daji, kyakkyawa na halitta da kabilun gida wasu daga cikin abubuwan asali ne da ke cikin shirin.

Bayan komawa Gabashin Afirka, an fara yakin duniya na farko kuma shugabansa Aziz ya gana da sojojin Jamus. Duk da karfin attajirin dan kasuwa, shi da sauran 'yan Afirka ana daukar su aiki don yi wa sojojin Jamus aiki. A wannan lokacin Yusuf zai yanke shawara mafi mahimmanci a rayuwarsa.

Takaitaccen tarihin wasu novels Gurnah

Ƙwaƙwalwar Tashi (1987)

Yana da littafin marubuci na farko, an saita shi la yankin bakin teku na Gabashin Afirka. Jarumin sa wani matashi ne wanda bayan ya fuskanci wani tsari na son rai a kasarsa, aka tura shi Kenya tare da kawunsa mai kishin kasa. A cikin tarihin tafiyarsa za ta bayyana da yadda take girma don samun sake haifuwa ta ruhaniya.

Ta bakin Teku (2001)

Shi ne littafi na shida na marubuci, an buga sigar ta Mutanen Espanya a Barcelona a cikin 2003 (tare da fassarar Carmen Aguilar).  A cikin wannan labari akwai labarai guda biyu waɗanda ke haɗa juna lokacin da jaruman suka hadu a bakin tekun Burtaniya. Su ne Saleh Omar, wanda ya bar komai a Zanzibar don komawa Ingila, da Latif Mahmud, wani saurayi wanda ya sami nasarar tserewa tuntuni kuma ya zauna a London tsawon shekaru.

Rashin haihuwa (2005)

Littafin labari ne wanda ke faruwa a matakai biyu, na farko a 1899 sannan shekaru 50 bayan haka. A cikin 1899, Hassanali ya ceci Ba'amurke Martin Pearce, bayan ya haye hamada kuma ya isa wani birni na Gabashin Afirka.. Dan kasuwan ya bukaci 'yar uwarsa Rehana ta warkar da raunukan Martin kuma ta kula da shi har sai ya warke. Ba da daɗewa ba, an haifi babban sha'awa tsakanin su biyun kuma suna da dangantaka mai zurfi a asirce.

Sakamakon wannan haramcin soyayyar za a nuna shi shekaru 5 bayan haka, lokacin da ɗan'uwan Martin ya ƙaunaci jikanyar Rehana. Labarin ya haɗu da wucewar lokaci, sakamakon mulkin mallaka a cikin alaƙa da matsalolin da soyayya ke alamta.

Game da wannan labari, mai sukar Mike Phillips ya rubuta wa jaridar Turanci Mai Tsaro: 

"Mafi yawan barin yana da kyau a rubuce kuma yana da daɗi kamar duk abin da kuka karanta kwanan nan, wani abin tunawa mai ban sha'awa na ƙuruciyar mulkin mallaka da ɓataccen al'adun Musulmi, wanda aka ayyana ta da ɗabi'unsa na ɗabi'a, waɗanda aka lullube su da kalandar bukukuwa da bukukuwan addini.

Abdulrazak Gurnah aiki

Novelas

  • Ƙwaƙwalwar Tashi (1987)
  • Hanyar Mahajjata (1988)
  • Dottie (1990)
  • Aljanna (1994) - Paraíso (1997).
  • Sha'awar Shiru (1996) - Shiru mai ban tsoro (1998)
  • Ta bakin Teku (2001) - A bakin teku (2003)
  • Rashin haihuwa (2005)
  • Kyauta ta ƙarshe (2011)
  • Zuciyar tsakuwa (2017)
  • Bayan rayuwa (2020)

Rubutu, gajerun labarai da sauran ayyuka

  • Matsayi (1985)
  • Cages (1992)
  • Makaloli akan Rubuce-rubucen Afirka 1: Sake Ƙimantawa (1993)
  • Dabarun Canji a cikin almara na Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o (1993)
  • Fiction of Wole Soyinka ”a cikin Wole Soyinka: An kimanta (1994)
  • Fushi da Zaɓin Siyasa a Najeriya: La'akari da Mahaukatan Soyinka da Kwararru, Mutumin da Ya Mutu, da Lokacin Anomy (1994, taron da aka buga)
  • Makaloli akan rubuce -rubucen Afirka 2: Adabin Zamani (1995)
  • Tsakiyar tsakiyar ihun ': Rubutun Dambudzo Marechera (1995)
  • Kaura da Canji a cikin Enigma na Zuwan (1995)
  • rakiya (1996)
  • Daga Hanyar Mahajjata (1988)
  • Tunanin Mawallafin Postcolonial (2000)
  • Tunani na Baya (2002)
  • Tarin Labarai na Abdulrazak Gurnah (2004)
  • Mahaifiyata ta rayu a gona a Afirka (2006)
  • Abokin Cambridge ga Salman Rushdie (2007, gabatarwar littafin)
  • Jigogi da Tsarin a cikin Yara Tsakar dare (2007)
  • Gwanin Alkama ta Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o (2012)
  • Labarin Mai isowa: Kamar yadda aka fada wa Abdulrazak Gurnah (2016)
  • Buga zuwa Babu inda: Wicomb da Cosmopolitanism (2020)

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