Steppe kerkolfci

Steppe kerkolfci

Steppe kerkolfci

Steppe kerkolfci marubuci ne, mawallafi kuma mawaki Hermann Hesse. An sake shi a cikin 1927 (fasalin ƙarshe ya bayyana shekara ɗaya daga baya), Der steppenwolf —Sunan asali a cikin Jamusanci - littafi ne da aka yaba sosai a Turai kuma sanannen nasarar wallafe-wallafe. Koyaya, marubucin Teutonic ya sha yin korafi cewa an yi masa fassarar da ba ta dace ba.

Dangane da wannan, masu sukar adabi suna nuni da cewa labarin kerkeci ya samo asali ne daga rikicin ruhaniya mai zurfin gaske wanda Hesse ya wahala a farkon 20. A kowane hali, ɗayan manyan marubutan adabin boko ne na ƙarni na XNUMX. Ba abin mamaki bane, wannan taken ana ɗaukar shi a matsayin fitacciyar marubuci wanda aka san aikinsa da kyautar Nobel ta Adabi a 1946.

Analysis of Steppe kerkolfci

Yanayin aikin

Der steppenwolf Ya kasance batun batutuwa marasa adadi da karatun ilimi; mafi yawansu sun zo daidai da nuna yanayin tarihin littafin. Tabbas, Akwai kamance tsakanin ruhun mai bayyana labarin da rayuwar Hesse. A hakikanin gaskiya, tsakanin 1916 da 1917 ya kasance mai haƙuri da Dokta Joseph B. Lang, wani yanki na sanannen Dr. Carl Gustav Jung, wanda marubucin ya hadu da shi daga baya.

Psychotherapy ya zama dole saboda rikice-rikicen rikice-rikicen marubuci wanda mutuwar mahaifinsa ta haifar gami da tsananin rashin lafiyar ɗansa Martin. Bugu da kari, matar sa ta farko ta sha wahala a lokutan schizophrenic (auren bai taba shawo kan wannan tunanin ba). Bayan rabuwarsu a cikin 1923, Hesse ya sake shiga wani lokacin na keɓewa da baƙin ciki, dukansu biyu sun bayyana a tarihin kerkeci.

Jigogi

Hujjar rubutu yana nuna ƙiyayya da marubucin Teutonic ga al'ummar burgeso na zamaninsa. Hakanan, Hesse yana amfani da surar dabbar a matsayin misali don ya bambanta salon rayuwa biyu: mutum da kerkeci. A gefe guda, mutum yana damuwa da halayyar wayewa, ra'ayoyi masu kyau, kyawawan halaye da ɗaukar kyawawan abubuwa.

Madadin haka, kare wani mutum ne wanda ra'ayinsa game da mahalli da waɗanda ke kewaye da shi koyaushe ke ba da izgili da baƙar magana. Babu shakka, dabba mai cin abincin dare makiyi ne ga bil'adama da kuma al'adun da jama'a suka yarda dasu don dauke da yanayin halittar mutum na gaskiya. A) Ee, labarin ya ta'allaka ne game da bahasi na ɗabi'a mara yankewa a cikin shugaban babban halayyar.

Abubuwan ilimin kimiyar tunani

Makircin kansa bincike ne na hankali game da Harry Haller, mai gabatarwa, hazikin marubuci kuma mawaki, mai tabe hankali da rashin nutsuwa. Kodayake tun daga farko wannan Ya kasance mai ladabi da ladabi, rikice-rikice a cikin dakinku alama ce ta farko ta rikicewar cikinku. Yayin da al'amuran ke gudana, iyakoki tsakanin gaskiya da mafarki sun dimauce.

A cikin Haller, jin daɗin zurfin laifi yana tare da bayyane na girman Allah. Hakanan, yana da kyakkyawar hikima wanda zai ba shi damar yaba fasaha da fahimtar ainihin abubuwan da ke kewaye da shi cikin nutsuwa. Koyaya, wannan hankalin yana sa shi ya rasa kansa a cikin inuwarsa ta zurfin tunani a tsakiyar shawarwarinsa na falsafa.

Takaitawa na Steppe kerkolfci

Gabatarwar

Mai ba da labari na farko (ya gabatar da kansa a matsayin "edita" na rubutun Harry) shi ne ɗan autan saurayin mai fansho inda jarumar take. Wannan mai kawo rahoto lokaci zuwa lokaci yana bayyana ra'ayinsa akan Haller, wanda ya siffanta shi da mutum mai hankali da tunani, amma ruhaniya ta rikice.

Rubutun Haller

Babban hali ya bayyana kansa a matsayin baƙo, mai tunani, mai son Mozart da waƙoƙi. An kuma yi masa baftisma a matsayin "kerkeci mai tarko", kasancewarsa musamman fahimta da kadaici. Wata rana da daddare sai ya yanke shawarar fita, kuma an sami nasara tare da kofa zuwa "Gidan wasan kwaikwayo na sihiri", amma ya ƙetare shi. Kusa da can, gudu a cikin wani dan kasuwa, wanda, bayan gajeriyar tattaunawa, miko masa karamin littafi.

Bayan ya dawo dakinsa, Harry ya gano cewa littafin game da shi ne. Aikin ya ƙunshi jerin tunani na falsafa akan kyawawan halaye, matsaloli da kasawa na kerkecin da aka kira su da kansu. Koyaya, rubutun yayi hasashen kashe mai son fitaccen jarumin, wani abu da ya yarda dashi, saboda yana jin matukar damuwa a rayuwarsa.

Dabbar dare

Bayan doguwar tafiya, Harry ya shiga cikin mashaya "Black Eagle", inda hadu da Hermine, budurwa budurwa mai kwalliya wacce take lasar maza. Bayan haka, Haller ya zama wani irin mai bin nata kuma ya yarda ya bi duk umarnin ta (gami da kashe ta). A sakamakon haka, an ba wa jarumar fim din "don koyon jin dadin rayuwa."

Daga baya, Harry ya sadu da Pablo, mai kidan hedonistic kuma mai masaukin gidan wasan kwaikwayo na sihiri. Har ila yau, Hermine ya gabatar da ita ga Maria, wacce ta zama masoyin Haller. Daga qarshe, babban jaririn ya yi rawa da dariya ga kerkeci da mutumin. Abu na gaba, an cika layukan da dariya, kwayoyi da baƙon yanayi tsakanin gaskiya da almara cikin gidan wasan sihiri.

Resolutionuduri

A cikin wuraren wauta marasa hankali na gidan wasan kwaikwayon, Harry ya sami yanayi na yau da kullun na mafarki mai ban tsoro; Har ma ya yi magana game da falsafa da wanzuwar rayuwa tare da fasalin zamani da burlesque na Mozart. Kusa da karshen, Haller ya sa Hermine tayi bacci tsirara kusa da Pablo, shi que la'akari a matsayin sigina don cika yardar yarinyar.

A ƙarshe, jarumar ta kashe Hermine da wuka. Sakamakon haka, an yanke masa hukuncin rayuwa har abada. A matsayin wani ɓangare na hukuncin, dole ne ya jure wa membobin kotun da dariya har tsawon awanni goma sha biyu. A ƙarshen rufewa, Haller ya yanke shawarar juya rayuwarsa ta juye, kuma ya fara koyon dariya kan makomarsa.

Game da marubucin, Hermann Hesse

Haihuwa da yarinta

Hermann Karl Hesse ne adam wata An haife shi a ƙaramin garin Cawl, Württemberg, Jamus, a ranar 2 ga Yuli, 1877. Mahaifinsa, Johannes Hesse, ɗan asalin Estoniya ne likitancin masu wa'azin Kirista; mahaifiyarsa ita ce Marie Gundert asalin 'yar Indiya. Yayin yarintarsa, ɗan ƙaramin Hermann yayi karatun Latin a Göppingen tsakanin 1886 da 1891.

Daga 1891 marubucin nan gaba Ya sami manyan maganganu tare da iyayensa kuma ya shiga cikin mummunan rikice-rikice (wanda ya fada sau da yawa daga baya). Bugu da ƙari, ya tsere daga makarantar wa'azin bishara kuma ba shi da wata shida a cikin wannan tsarin ilimin. A cikin 1892, iyayensa sun sanya shi zuwa gidan sanata a Stetten im Remstal saboda rubuce-rubucen kashe kansa.

Ayyukan farko

Makarantun karshe da ya halarta sun kasance cibiyoyi na musamman a Basel da Gymnasium kusa da Stuttgart. A shekarar 1893 ya kammala makarantar firamare sannan ya daina zuwa makaranta. Bayan haka, ya yi aiki a matsayin mataimaki a shagon agogo sannan daga baya ya zama mai sayar da littattafai a Tübingen. A can ya fara karanta tatsuniyoyi, matanin tauhidi da kuma falsafa daga marubuta kamar Goethe, Lessing da Schiller, da sauransu.

Bugun sa na farko ya bayyana a wata mujallar Vienna a shekarar 1986, waka madonna. Daga baya, Hesse ya buga Romantische liede (1898) y Eine Stunde ya hana Mitternacht (1899). A cikin tarin duka, Hesse ya nuna tasirin mashahurin romantics na Jamusawa (Brentano, von Eichendorff da Novalis, galibi).

Rarraba adabi da aure

Nasarar labari Peter camenzind (1904) ya ba Hermann Hesse damar rayuwa a rubuce har tsawon rayuwarsa. A wancan lokacin marubucin Bajamushe yana da sha'awar ruhaniya (musamman, Hindu) kuma an yi watsi da shi don aikin soja. A wannan bangaren, Marubucin Bajamushe ya shiga cikin wasu matsaloli a rayuwarsa ta soyayya (ya yi aure sau uku).

Ma'aurata

  • Maria Bernoulli, tsakanin 1904 da 1923
  • Ruth Wegner, daga 1927 zuwa 1927
  • Ninon Dolbin, daga 1931 har zuwa mutuwar Hesse a 1962 daga zubar jini na ƙwaƙwalwa.

Ayyukan da aka fi sani

  • Gertrude (1910)
  • Demian (1919)
  • Siddhartha (1922)
  • Steppe kerkolfci (1927)
  • wasan abalors (1943).

Legacy

Aikin Hermann Hesse ya haɗa da wallafe-wallafe sama da 40 da suka haɗa da litattafai, gajerun labarai, waƙoƙi da tunani, tare da sake dubawa da gyare-gyare sama da 3000. Saboda haka, ba abin mamaki ba ne cewa ta sayar da kofi sama da miliyan 30 a duk duniya, an fassara ta cikin harsuna sama da 40. Bugu da ƙari, marubucin Bajamushe yana da cikakkun bayanai na tarihi (fiye da haruffa 35.000) kuma ya kasance fitaccen mai zane.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

Kasance na farko don yin sharhi

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