Pedro Salina

Pedro Salina.

Pedro Salina.

Pedro Salinas ana ɗaukarsa ɗayan fitattun marubutan na ƙarni na XNUMX, kuma babban wakili na tallan Castilian. An san aikinsa azaman mai hankali kuma, a lokaci guda, da dabara. Marubucin ya kasance mutum ne mai wasiƙu da sauyi, ta kowane fanni.

Shi kansa ya faɗi game da kansa da kuma game da aikinsa: “Na fi daraja a waƙa, sama da duka, amincin gaske. Sai kyau. Sai dabara. Yawancin matani a cikin wannan sanannen mawaƙin Mutanen Spain an sadaukar dasu ne don soyayya, daga hangen nesa gabaɗaya kuma tare da haskakawar gaba.

Bayanin rayuwa

Haihuwa da yarinta

An haifi Pedro Salinas Serrano a Madrid, Spain, a Nuwamba 27, 1891. 'Ya'yan aure tsakanin Soledad Serrano Fernández da Pedro Salinas Elmos. Latterarshen ya yi aiki a matsayin ɗan kasuwa har zuwa mutuwarsa a 1897. A wancan lokacin, marubucin nan gaba yana ɗan shekara shida kawai.

Daga mutuwar mahaifinsa, Cibiyoyi irin su Makarantar Hispano-Francés da Cibiyar San Isidro da ke Madrid sun kasance manyan tushen koyarwar ilimin Salinas don keta zuwa duniyar jami'a. Daga baya, Pedro ya yi karatu a Jami'ar Madrid, inda ya fara karatun aikin lauya.

Bayan shekaru biyu, ya yi watsi da dokoki don shiga sha'awar falsafa da wasiƙu. Wannan aikin ya jagoranci shi daga baya, a cikin 1917, don samun digiri na uku. Ya yi nasara tare da rubutun akan zane-zane na Don Quijote na La Mancha, ta Miguel de Cervantes lokacin da muke da bayanin.

Mawaki na soyayya

Mutane da yawa sun yarda da shi "Mawakin kauna", wannan shahararren marubucin ya ƙaddamar da aikinsa da ayyukan adabinsa a cikin zurfin da dabara irin ta wannan babban ji da ya kiyaye. Ya kamata a sani cewa soyayyar da Pedro ya bayyana a cikin littattafansa ba koyaushe take da daɗi da kamala ba.

Salinas ya sami hanyar da za ta haɗa da yadda ƙauna mara daɗi da zafi za ta iya kasancewa, amma ta hanyar ƙwarewa. Hakanan, ya haɗa tunanin mutum game da rabuwa da jin rashi.

Rayuwarsa, labarin soyayya

A cikin 1915, a Algeria, ya auri Margarita Bonmatí. Salinas yanada shekaru 24 kacal a lokacin. Sun fi zama a Faris. Shekaru daga baya, a cikin 1917, suka zauna a Spain. Sun haifi yara biyu: Soledad da Jaime Salinas. Auren ya kasance cikakke kuma mai farin ciki har zuwa bazarar 1932.

Tare da ƙirƙirar jami'ar bazara ta Santander, wanda yake cikin sa, Pedro Salinas ya mai da hankalinsa ga ɗalibin Ba'amurkiya mai suna Katherine R. Yanke. Mahaukaci cikin ƙaunarta da girmamawarta, ya faɗakar da waƙoƙin waƙa: Muryar saboda ku (1933), Dalilin so (1938) y Dogon nadama (1939).

An kiyaye soyayyar har lokacin da Katherine ta koma ƙasarta ta asali. Amma, don lokacin karatun 1934-1935, Margarita - matar Pedro - ta sami labarin alaƙar ɓoye da yunƙurin kashe kanta. A sakamakon wannan, Katherine ta haɓaka yawan ɓarkewar nasabarta da Salinas.

Quote daga Pedro Salinas.

Quote daga Pedro Salinas.

Endingarshen ban mamaki

Yakin basasar Sifen shine dalilin da ya kawo karshen nisantar masoya biyu. Bayan juyin mulkin, Salinas ya tafi Faransa sannan daga baya ya yi hijira zuwa Amurka. A shekarar 1939, Katherine ta auri Brewer Whitmore kuma ta karbe sunansa na karshe. Koyaya, ya mutu bayan shekaru hudu a cikin haɗarin mota.

A bayyane, alaƙar da ke tsakanin Katherine da Pedro a wasu lokuta ta kasance, amma daga baya ta yi sanyi. Haduwarsu ta karshe ita ce a shekarar 1951. Bayan ’yan watanni, a ranar 4 ga Disamba, mawaƙin ya mutu a Boston, Massachusetts. An binne gawarsa a babban birnin Puerto Rico, San Juan.

Daga baya, a cikin 1982, Katherine ma ta mutu. Amma, ba tare da izinin farko ba cewa Haruffa tsakaninta da Salinas aka buga. Muddin fatarsa ​​ta karshe ta cika: cewa ya kasance shekaru ashirin bayan rasuwarsa kuma an bar wasiƙunsa.

Zamani na 27

Babu shakka, Pedro Salinas ana ɗaukarsa ɗayan manyan mawaƙan karni na 27 kuma wakilin wakilin abin da ake kira Generation of XNUMX. Wannan motsi ya zama sananne a cikin al'ada a waccan shekarar kuma ya zama maye gurbin Noucentisme. Marubucin ya kasance tare da marubutan tsayin daka na Raphael Alberto, Federico García Lorca da Dámaso Alonso.

Ba kamar sauran ruwa na baya ba, Zamanin '27 yayi amfani da nau'ikan adabi daban-daban. Daga cikin waɗannan, waɗannan suna da fice: neopopularism, Hispanic philology - sanannen yanki na Salinas -, waƙoƙin ba da izini da nuna wariyar launin fata.

Binciken ayyukansa

A matsayinsa na cikakken masanin dan adam kuma masani, sanannun ayyukan Pedro Salinas Serrano sune kyawawan ayyukan sa a matsayin mawaki da marubucin rubutu. Koyaya, mutum baya iya faɗin sauran ayyukan da yake yi. Kamar, alal misali, na marubucin rubutu, nau'in da daga ciki mafi kyawun taken sa uku suka fito.

Salinas kuma ya yi aiki a matsayin marubucin wasan kwaikwayo tsakanin 1936 da 1947, yana ƙirƙirar jimillar wasanni goma sha huɗu. Ya kuma kasance mai fassarar marubutan Faransa Proust, wanda ya sami damar buga katafaren litattafan sa a duniyar masu amfani da Sifaniyanci ta hanyar sa.

Salon mutumtaka

Wannan mawaƙin-mai wahalar bayyana waƙa kamar: «Kasada zuwa cikakkar. Kusa kusantowa ko ƙarancin kusanci, zaka bi hanya kaɗan ko kaɗan: shi ke nan ». A gare shi, waƙoƙi ya kasance, na farko, sahihi, ya biyo baya kyakkyawa da ƙwarewa, zabar gajerun ayoyi marasa son rhyme a matsayin mafi kyawun zabi a cikin littafansa.

Muryar da ta dace da kai, ta Pedro Salinas.

Muryar da ta dace da kai, ta Pedro Salinas.

A gefe guda kuma, masu suka da abokan aiki daga yanayin adabi sun ayyana aikin Salinas a matsayin wani yunƙuri na kare martabar al'adun Turai kafin yakin duniya na II. Loveaunarsa da halayen ɗan adam ya sa shi yin tambaya da rubutu game da ɓacin ran abubuwa.

Ga Leo Spitzer, ɗan ƙabilar Austriya kuma ƙwararren masani kan yarukan soyayya, Wakokin Salinas koyaushe suna ɗaukar halaye iri ɗaya: ra'ayi nata. Duk aikinsa yana da wani abu nasa. Hanyar da marubucin ya nuna ta ita ce ta hanyar rikitarwa da kuma magana.

Mataki uku na waƙa

Farkonsa a duniyar adabi ya fara ne a hankali a cikin 1911 tare da waƙoƙinsa na farko da ake kira "creepy." Wadannan Ramón Gómez de la Serna ne ya wallafa su a cikin mujallar sa Zamanin. Koyaya, Arfafawarsa azaman mawaƙin ra'ayi mai ɗabi'a mai ƙaunata ya zama sananne ta matakai marubuci uku.

Wani babban juyin halitta ake lura dashi a kowane ɗayan waɗannan matakan. Wannan ba wai kawai saboda abubuwan ayyukan ba, har ma da halayen mawaƙin da kansa. Kalaman sa na rayuwa koyaushe sun rinjayi su. Bugu da ƙari, Salinas ta kasance mai neman wahayi don ci gaban kanta.

Mataki na biyu ya yi fice musamman. Lakabin da aka samar a wancan lokacin, ban da wadatar da duk aikinsa, sune suka fi shahara a lokacin.

Mataki na farko

Mataki na farko ya fara daga 1923 zuwa 1932. Salinas, to, saurayi ne wanda yafara amfani da kyakkyawan salon inda taken soyayya shine jarumi. Hanya a wannan lokacin ta haskaka ta waƙoƙin Rubén Darío - marubucin Nicaraguan - da marubutan asalin Sifen: Juan Ramón Jiménez da Miguel Unamuno.

Haske (1923), Inshorar inshora (1929) y Labari da sa hannu (1931) samfurin wannan matakin ne. Burin marubucin shine ya sanya wakarsa ta zama cikakke kamar yadda ya kamata. Wannan sake zagayowar wani nau'i ne na shiri don matakinsa na biyu da aka sani da: cikakken.

Mataki na biyu

A lokacin wannan matakin, wanda ya fara daga 1933 zuwa 1939, mawaƙi Salinas ya ɗauki abin birgewa da ban mamaki ta hanyar rubuta tarihin soyayya. Muryar saboda ku (1933) shine farkon sunayen. Wannan aikin ya bada labarin gaba daya, daga farko zuwa ƙarshe kuma cikin ladabi, tsananin soyayya.

Sannan ya bayyana Dalilin so (1936). A ciki, Salinas ya zana soyayya daga mahangarta mafi zafi. Jaddadawa akan yadda rabuwa zata kasance da wahalar da zata kasance bayan rabuwar. Yankin jumla kamar: "Za ku kasance, soyayya, wata gaisuwa mai tsawo wacce ba ta ƙarewa" suna almara a cikin wannan littafin.

A matsayin rufewa, ya bayyana Dogon nadama (1939) - Tunawa da Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer—. Hakanan wannan aikin yana bin kwas ɗin nasara iri ɗaya wanda aka bayyana a cikin sauran littattafan. Ana kiran matakin don cika saboda ya dace da lokacin soyayyarsa da Katherine Withmore.

Omens, na Pedro Salinas.

Omens, na Pedro Salinas.

Mataki na uku

Daga wannan lokacin, tsakanin 1940 da 1951, Salinas ya haɓaka waƙoƙin wahayi daga tekun tsibirin Puerto Rican. Wannan shine batun: Wanda ake tunani (1946). Aikin taso Komai karara da sauran kasidu (1949) - taken da ke jaddada ikon halitta ta hanyar kalma.

Wani waken wakilin wannan matakin shi ne "Confianza" (1955). A cikin wannan, marubucin yana alfahari da farin ciki da kuzari na tabbatar da gaskiyar rayuwa. Ya kamata a lura cewa take ce da aka buga a 1955, bayan mutuwarsa.

Cikakken jerin littattafansa

Mawaƙa

  • Inshorar inshora (Western Magazine, 1929)
  • Labari da sa hannu. (Plutarch, 1931).
  • Muryar saboda ku. (Alamar, 1933).
  • Dalilin soyayya. (Bugun Bishiyar, 1936).
  • Kuskure. (Im. Miguel N, 1938).
  • Dogon nadama. (Editan Edita, 1939).
  • Waka tare. (Losada, 1942).
  • Wanda ake tunani. (Nueva Floresta, 1946).
  • Komai ya fito karara da sauran kasidu (Sudamericana, 1949).
  • Dogara (Aguilar, 1955).

Mai ba da labari

  • Sigar zamani ta Cantar de Mio Cid. (Western Magazine, 1926).
  • Hauwa na farin ciki. (Western Magazine, 1926).
  • Bam mai ban mamaki. (Amurka ta Kudu, 1950).
  • Rashin lalata tsiraici da sauran labaran (Tezontle, 1951).
  • Cikakkun labaran. (Yankin Yankin, 1998).

Gwaji

  • Adabin Mutanen Espanya. Karni na ashirin. (1940).
  • Jorge Manrique ko al'ada da asali. (1947).
  • Wakar Rubén Darío (1948).
  • Hakkin marubuci. (Seix Barral, 1961).
  • Kammala kasidu. Bugu: Salinas de Marichal. (Taurus, 1983).
  • Mai kare (Alianza Edita, 2002).

Haruffa

  • Wasikun soyayya zuwa Margarita (1912–1915). Kawancen Edita, 1986
  • Haruffa zuwa Katherine Whitmore. Tukur, 2002.
  • Salinas, Pedro. (1988 a). Haruffa zuwa Jorge Guillén. Christopher Maurer, ed. García Lorca Newsletter, n.3, shafi na. 34-37.
  • Wasiku takwas da ba a buga su ba zuwa Federico García Lorca. Christopher Maurer (ed.) García Lorca Foundation Bulletin, n. 3, (1988); shafi na. 11-21.
  • Haruffa daga Pedro Salinas zuwa Guillermo de Torre. Renaissance, n. 4, (1990) shafi na. 3- 9.
  • Wasiku takwas daga Pedro Salinas. Enric Bou (ed.) Mujallar Yamma, n.126, nov. (1991); shafi na. 25-43.
  • Salinas / Jorge Guillén wasiku (1923-1951). Bugawa, gabatarwa da bayanin kula daga Andrés Soria Olmedo. Barcelona: Tusquets (1992).

Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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