Rayuwa da aikin Miguel Hernández

Miguel Hernandez.

Miguel Hernandez.

Ana ɗauka ɗayan sanannun muryoyi a cikin littattafan Mutanen Espanya na ƙarni na XNUMX, Miguel Hernández Gilabert (1910 - 1942) marubucin waƙoƙin Sipaniya ne kuma marubucin wasan kwaikwayo da aka rubuta zuwa Zamanin 36. Kodayake a cikin wasu nassoshi an sanya wannan marubucin zuwa Zamani na 27 saboda musayar ilimi da ya yi tare da membobinta da yawa, musamman tare da Maruja Mallo ko Vicente Aleixandre, don kaɗan.

Ana tuna shi a matsayin shahidi wanda ya mutu a ƙarƙashin zalunci na Francoism.da kyau yana da shekara 31 kawai lokacin da ya mutu saboda tarin fuka a kurkukun Alicante. Hakan ya faru ne bayan an kama shi kuma an yanke masa hukuncin kisa (daga baya aka sauya hukuncin zuwa ɗaurin shekaru 30). Hernández yana da ɗan gajeren rayuwa, amma ya bar kyawawan abubuwan shahararrun ayyuka, daga cikinsu akwai fitattu Gwani a cikin watanni, Walƙiyar da bata tsayawa y Iska tana labe.

Yara, saurayi da tasiri

Miguel Hernández an haife shi a Orihuela, Spain, a ranar 30 ga Oktoba, 1910. Shi ne na uku daga cikin 'yan uwan ​​bakwai da suka fito daga ƙungiyar tsakanin Miguel Hernández Sánchez da Concepción Gilabert. Ya kasance dangin mai karamin karfi wanda aka sadaukar domin kiwon awaki. Sakamakon haka, Miguel ya fara tun yana ƙarami don aiwatar da wannan kasuwancin, ba tare da babban burin samun ilimin ilimi ba kamar karatun firamare.

Koyaya, daga shekara 15 matasa Hernández ya haɓaka ayyukan kula da garken sa tare da yawan karatun marubutan adabin gargajiya.to -Gabriel Miró, Garcilaso de la Vega, Calderón de la Barca ko Luis de Góngora, da sauransu - har sai da ya zama mutum mai koyar da kansa na gaskiya. A wannan lokacin ya fara rubuta wakokinsa na farko.

ma, Ya kasance memba na ƙungiyar da ba ta dace ba da tarurrukan adabi na cikin gida tare da manyan mutane masu ilimi. Daga cikin haruffan da ya raba tare da su, Ramón Sijé, Manuel Molina da 'yan'uwan Carlos da Efraín Fenol sun yi fice. Daga baya, yana da shekara 20 (a 1931) ya karɓi Kyautar ofungiyar Al'adu ta Orfeón Ilicitano don Waka ga Valencia, waƙa mai layi 138 game da mutane da yanayin shimfidar bakin tekun Levantine.

In ji Miguel Hernández.

In ji Miguel Hernández.

Tafiya zuwa Madrid

Tafiya ta farko

A ranar 31 ga Disamba, 1931 ya yi tafiya zuwa Madrid a karo na farko don neman babban baje koli. Amma Hernández bai sami wani muhimmin aiki ba duk da sunansa, kyawawan bayanai da shawarwari. Sakamakon haka, dole ne ya koma Orihuela bayan watanni biyar. Koyaya, lokaci ne mai fa'ida sosai daga mahangar fasaha, saboda ya kusanci aiki tare da aikin Zamani na 27.

Hakazalika, kasancewarsa a Madrid ya ba shi ka'idar da wahayi don yin rubutu Gwani a cikin watanni, littafinsa na farko, wanda aka buga shi a shekarar 1933. A waccan shekarar ya koma babban birnin Spain lokacin da aka nada shi mai aiki tare - daga baya sakatare da edita - a Ofishin Jakadancin Pedagogical, karkashin kariyar José María Cossío. Hakanan, ya ba da gudummawa akai-akai ga Revista de Occidente. A can ya kammala wasan kwaikwayo Wanene ya gan ka kuma wanda ya gan ka kuma inuwar abin da kake (1933), Gwarzo dan gwagwarmaya (1934) y Yaran dutse (1935).

Tafiya ta biyu

Zamansa na biyu a Madrid ya sami Hernández cikin alaƙar soyayya da mai zane Maruja Mallo. Ita ce ta zuga shi ya rubuta yawancin sautin na Walƙiyar da bata tsayawa (1936).

Mawakin ya kuma zama abokai tare da Vicente Aleixandre da Pablo Neruda, tare da na baya ya kulla kawance mai zurfi. Tare da marubucin Chile ya kafa mujallar Kore Doki Ga Waka kuma ya fara karkata ga ra'ayoyin Markisanci. Bayan haka, tasirin Neruda a cikin Hernández ya bayyana ta gajeriyar hanyarsa ta hanyar sassaucin ra'ayi, da kuma saƙonninsa waɗanda ke ƙara himma ga matsalolin zamantakewa da siyasa na waɗannan lokutan.

Ramón Sijé ya mutu a 1935, mutuwar babban abokin rayuwarsa ya sa Miguel Hernández ƙirƙirar almararsa Elegy. Sijé (wanda sunansa na gaskiya José Marín Gutiérrez), ya gabatar da shi ga wanda zai kasance matarsa, Josefina Manresa. Ta kasance gidan kayan tarihinsa ga yawancin waƙoƙinsa, da kuma uwa ga 'ya'yansa biyu: Manuel Ramón (1937 - 1938) da Manuel Miguel (1939 - 1984).

Josefina Manresa, wacce ta kasance matar Miguel Hernández.

Josefina Manresa, wacce ta kasance matar Miguel Hernández.

Yakin basasa, dauri da mutuwa

A watan Yulin 1936 yakin basasar Spain ya barke. Bayan fara yakin, Miguel Hernández da son rai ya shiga cikin rundunar Republican kuma ya fara siyasarsa a hade da Jam’iyyar Kwaminis na Spain (dalilin hukuncin kisan da ya biyo baya). Lokaci ne wanda littattafan waƙa suka fara ko suka ƙare Iska kauye (1937), Mutum yana zage-zage (1937 - 1938), Littafin waƙoƙi da ballads na rashi (1938 - 1941) da Albasa nanas (1939).

Bugu da ƙari, ya samar da wasan kwaikwayo Manomi da karin iska y Gidan wasan kwaikwayo a cikin yaki (duka daga 1937). A lokacin yakin, ya shiga cikin fagen daga a Teruel da Jaén. Ya kuma kasance wani ɓangare na II International Congress of Writers for Defence of Culture in Madrid kuma ya ɗan je Soviet Union a madadin gwamnatin Jamhuriyar.

A ƙarshen yaƙin a cikin Afrilu 1939, Miguel Hernández ya koma Orihuela. An kama shi yana kokarin tsallaka iyaka zuwa Fotigal a Huelva. Ya ratsa gidan yari daban-daban har Ya mutu a kurkuku a Alicante a kan Maris 28, 1942, wanda aka azabtar da shi na mashako wanda ya haifar da typhus kuma, a ƙarshe, tarin fuka.

Maganar Neruda bayan mutuwar Miguel Hernández

Dangin da Pablo Neruda ya haɓaka tare da Miguel Hernández ya kasance kusa. Dukansu sun kai kimanin komai ba daidai gwargwado ga lokacin da suka raba ba. Ana iya faɗi ba tare da jituwa ba cewa ƙaunar da suka yi ta dace da yadda dukansu suka sami nasarar shiga cikin kalmar. Bayan mutuwar mawaƙin, Neruda ta ji zafi mai ƙarfi. Daga cikin abubuwan da mawaƙin Chile ya rubuta kuma ya faɗi game da Hernández, wannan ya fito fili:

«Tunawa da Miguel Hernández wanda ya ɓace a cikin duhu da kuma tuna shi da cikakken haske aikin Spain ne, aikin soyayya ne. Kadan daga cikin mawaka masu karamci da walwala kamar yaro daga Orihuela wanda wata rana mutum-mutumin sa zai tashi tsakanin furannin lemu na kasar da yake bacci. Miguel bashi da hasken zenith na Kudu kamar mawaƙan fitattun mawaƙa na Andalusia, amma dai hasken duniya ne, dutse da safe, hasken saƙar zuma mai kauri yana farkawa. Da wannan al'amari mai wuya kamar zinare, mai rai kamar jini, ya zana waƙoƙin da zai daɗe. Kuma wannan shine mutumin da wancan lokacin daga Spain ya kora zuwa inuwa! Lokaci ne namu a yanzu da koyaushe mu fitar da shi daga kurkukun mutuwarsa, mu fadakar da shi da karfin gwiwa da kuma shahadarsa, mu koya masa a matsayin misali na mafi tsarkin zuciya! Ba shi haske! Ka ba shi da bugun ƙwaƙwalwa, tare da wulakancin da ke bayyana shi, shugaban mala'ikan ɗaukakar ƙasa wanda ya faɗo cikin dare ɗauke da takobin haske! ».

Pablo Neruda

Wakokin Miguel Hernández

A lissafi, aikinsa yayi daidai da abinda ake kira "tsara ta 36". Duk da haka, Dámaso Alonso ya ambaci Miguel Hernández a matsayin "babban jigon tarihi" na "tsara ta 27". Wannan saboda sanannen cigaban cigaban wallafe-wallafenta, daga halayen Katolika na Ramón Sijé a cikin mujallar Rikicin Zakara zuwa ga ra'ayoyin neman sauyi da rubutu wanda tasirin Pablo Neruda ya daidaita.

Miguel Hernández masana masana adabi ne suka nuna shi a matsayin mafi girman mai bayyana "wakokin yaƙi." Ga wasu daga cikin fitattun wakokinsa (a cewar kamfanin dillancin labarai na Europa, 2018):

Iskar kauye na dauke ni

«Idan na mutu, to, in mutu

tare da kai sosai.

Matattu kuma sau ashirin sun mutu,

bakin a kan ciyawa,

Na dafe haƙorana

kuma kayyade gemu.

Waƙa Ina jiran mutuwa,

cewa akwai marayan dare waɗanda suke raira waƙa

sama da bindigogi

kuma a cikin yaƙe-yaƙe.

Walƙiyar da bata tsayawa

«Ba zai gushe wannan hasken da yake zaune a kaina ba

zuciyar ɓacin rai

kuma na fusatattun abubuwa da maƙeri

ina mafi sanadin ƙarfe yake bushewa?

Shin wannan tsayayyen stalactite ba zai gushe ba

don noma gashin kansu

kamar takuba da tsauraran wuta

zuwa ga zuciyata da ke nishi da kururuwa? ».

Hannu

Hannaye iri biyu suna fuskantar juna a rayuwa,

tsiro daga zuciya, fashe ta cikin makamai,

suna tsalle, kuma suna gudana cikin haske da aka raunata

da duka, tare da fika.

Hannun kayan aiki ne na rai, sakon sa,

kuma jiki yana da reshen fada a ciki.

Tashi, girgiza hannuwanku cikin tsananin damuwa,

maza daga zuriyata ».

In ji Miguel Hernández.

In ji Miguel Hernández.

Masu aikin kwana

«Ma'aikata na rana waɗanda suka biya kuɗin jagoranci

wahala, aiki da kuɗi.

Masu biyayya da tsayi mai tsayi:

masu aikin rana.

Mutanen Spain da Spain ta ci

sassaka shi tsakanin ruwan sama da tsakanin rana.

Rabadanes na yunwa da garma:

Mutanen Spain.

Wannan Spain din, bata gamsu ba

don lalatar da furen ciyawar,

daga wannan girbi zuwa wancan:

wannan Spain ».

Yaƙe-yaƙe masu baƙin ciki

«Yakin yaƙe-yaƙe

idan kamfanin ba soyayya bane.

Abin baƙin ciki, bakin ciki.

Abubuwan baƙin ciki

idan ba kalmomin ba.

Abin baƙin ciki, bakin ciki.

Masu bakin ciki

idan basu mutu da soyayya ba.

Abin baƙin ciki, bakin ciki.

Ina kira ga matasa

«Jinin da ba ya malalawa,

matasa wanda ba ya kuskure,

ba jini bane, kuma ba saurayi bane,

ba su da haske ba kuma ba su yin furanni.

Jikunan da aka haifa an ci su,

ci da grays mutu:

zo da shekaru na karni,

kuma sun tsufa idan sunzo.

Littafin waƙoƙi da ballads na rashi

«Ta titunan zan tafi

wani abu da nake tarawa:

guda na rayuwata

zo daga can nesa

Ina da fikafikai cikin azaba

rarrafe na gan kaina

a bakin kofa, a gona

latent na haihuwa ».

Wakar karshe

«Fentin, ba komai:

fenti ne gidana

kalar babban

sha'awa da masifa.

Zai dawo daga kuka

a ina aka kaishi

tare da jejin shi,

tare da lalataccen gadon sa.

Kisses zai yi fure

akan matashin kai.

Kuma a kusa da jikin

zai daga takardar

mai tsananin creeper

dare, kamshi.

Ateiyayya an rufe ta

bayan taga.

Zai zama kambori mai taushi.

Ka ba ni fata.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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  1. Mai alhakin bayanan: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Dalilin bayanan: Gudanar da SPAM, gudanar da sharhi.
  3. Halacci: Yarda da yarda
  4. Sadarwar bayanan: Ba za a sanar da wasu bayanan ga wasu kamfanoni ba sai ta hanyar wajibcin doka.
  5. Ajiye bayanai: Bayanin yanar gizo wanda Occentus Networks (EU) suka dauki nauyi
  6. Hakkoki: A kowane lokaci zaka iyakance, dawo da share bayanan ka.

  1.   Miguel m

    Ga malamaina MIGUEL HERNÁNDEZ, har yanzu ba a yi adalci da mutuwarsa na rashin adalci ba. Adalcin maza da mata ba zai taɓa zama cikakke ba, amma adalcin Allah ya ba shi lada tare da komawa zuwa rayuwar abin duniya, wato, Miguel HERNÁNDEZ, yi haƙuri, maimakon haka, mahimmancin mawaƙin mawaƙin, an sake koya masa don sake kammala abubuwan rayuwa. cewa yakin basasa da masu aiwatar da shi sun yanke shi da mummunan gatari.

  2.   GILBERTO CARDONA COLOMBIA m

    Mawakinmu Miguel Hernandez ba zai taba samun cikakkiyar amincewa da girmama shi ba. Babu wanda ya fi mutum. Shahada ga 'yancin maza game da dabbancin fascist.

bool (gaskiya)