Zamani na adabi: menene shi da halayensa

Rubén Darío da Zamani.

Rubén Darío da Zamani.

A cikin Mutanen Espanya, kalmar modernismo tana nufin motsin al'adu da adabi da aka haifa a tsakanin shekarun 1880 zuwa 1917. Wannan halin yanzu ya sami babban ci gaba a cikin adabin Castilian, musamman a Latin Amurka. Babban wakilinsa shi ne mawaƙin Nicaragua, ɗan jarida kuma jami'in diflomasiyya Rubén Darío, tare da tarihin waƙarsa. Azul (1888). Wannan aikin yana wakiltar fashewar kayan ado a cikin haruffan lokacin.

Zamani na adabi ya kasance da gyare-gyare, ƙawata da ƙwaƙƙwaran kalmomi., don haka samar da sabuntawa a cikin sarrafa ma'auni da harshe. A cikin wannan motsi yana yiwuwa a gano tasirin manyan igiyoyin Turai guda uku: Parnassianism (neman abin da ake bukata); romanticism (kimanin abin da ya bambanta); da kuma alamar alama (asiri don ƙaddamarwa).

Halayen adabi na zamani

Ɗaya daga cikin zurfafan sifofi na zamani na adabi yana da alaƙa da ƙarin al'adar amfani da harshe. Ɗaya daga cikin manyan manufofinsa shine "art for art's sake". Wannan ra'ayi yana nufin ƙirƙira don kawai aikata shi, ta hanyar salo da kuma waƙoƙi. Masu sharhi na wannan yunkuri sun zabi waka a matsayin hanyar da aka fi so, Tun da ya ba su damar buga alamomin da ke cike da kyau.

Neman kayan ado

Ga masu zamani yana da mahimmanci cewa hotuna suna da kyau. Cikakken kamala a cikin abubuwan da aka tsara ya kasance wani ɓangare na kayan ado na kowane aiki. Harshen al'ada da kulawa mai kyau, da buƙatar ƙirƙira ba tare da dalili na hankali ko hankali ba, sai dai na fasaha, ya tsara kyawawan waƙoƙin wakoki da sauran rubutun motsi.

tsabta a cikin harshe

Zamani ya nemi kyau ta hanyar albarkatun adabi da aka sanya a al'adance. Hankali ga daki-daki ya haifar da hotuna waɗanda ke da alaƙa da launi, jituwa, hankali da fasaha. Zamani na adabi yana da alaƙa ta hanyar yin amfani da maimaitawa na alliteration, alamomin kade-kade da haɗaɗɗun alamar alama. Haka nan guguwar ruwa ce wadda ta wuce adabi.

kin gaskiya

Yawancin rubuce-rubucen da suka shafi zamani na adabi suna faruwa ne a sabbin wurare, na ban mamaki, ko ƙagaggun wurare. Masu zamani sun ci gaba da gudu daga gaskiyar masana'antu na lokacin. inda babu sarari don fasaha da kyau. Ba sabon abu ba ne cewa a cikin waƙoƙin ana iya godiya da cikakken neman gamsuwa ta hanyar ado.

Yawan daraja

Jumla daga José Martí.

Jumla daga José Martí.

Halin zamani na zamani yana da bayyananniyar hali don ƙirƙirar alama, hotuna da wurare masu daraja. Classic kyakkyawa yana nan tare da kawai manufar gamsar da buƙatun kyakkyawa. Mawaƙan sun karkata ne su yi amfani da harshe mai cike da kyawawan kayan furucin da ya sa ayyukansu suka fi dacewa.

Haɗin kai tsakanin melancholy da kuzari

Masu fasahar zamani sun kasance suna fakewa a duniyar da ta bambanta da tasu saboda ba sa son yanayin lokacinsu. Wannan shi ne daya daga cikin dalilan da ya sa za a iya ganin sifa ta melancholic a cikin rubutun wannan motsi. An sami wani mummunan ra'ayi da rashin hankali a tsakanin ƙarni na XNUMX zuwa na XNUMX, wanda ya sake tabbatar da duhun ɗabi'ar mawaƙa.

fifikon kida

Waqoqin zamani da rubuce-rubucen suna da alamar kida. Wannan motsi yana ba da girmamawa ga manyan sata na gargajiya. Ana amfani da ayoyi na tsakiya kamar dodecasyllable, Alexandria da masu sauki.. Hakanan, yana haɗa sabbin bambance-bambancen sonnet.

Tasirin tatsuniyoyi

Yawancin wallafe-wallafen zamani suna tasiri da tatsuniyoyi na Greco-Latin. A wannan ma'ana, Yana da dabi'a cewa waƙoƙin suna mayar da hankali kan jigogi ta hanyar alloli da kyawawan ra'ayoyi masu alaƙa da allahntaka. Hakazalika, akwai magana game da halayen halayen tsohuwar Girka da kuma sha'awar da ke tattare da su, wanda ya ba su iskar al'ada da hankali ga ayyukan.

neman 'yanci

Zamani, kamar romanticism, ana siffanta shi ta hanyar karya ka'idodin adabi na zamaninsa. Masu zamani sun nemi yin tawaye ga tsari da al'adu don nemo sabbin nau'ikan fasaha masu kyau..

A cikin waqoqin wannan gwaji na zamani da sabbin fasahohi sun yi yawa. Har ila yau, sun ƙirƙira a cikin ƙamus, tare da amfani da Gallicisms, Hellenisms da cultism. Waɗannan hanyoyin sun yi ƙoƙarin gano ƙarancin kalmomin fiye da madaidaicin guda.

jimlar ma'ana

Mawaki Ruben Dario, mafi girma wakilin zamani a Latin Amurka da kuma wakoki na karni na XNUMX, sun daidaita ma'aunin Castilian zuwa na Latin. Marubucin ya sabunta kade-kade da ake ganin an manta da su a cikin ayoyin, wadanda suka hada da tara, sha biyu da sha hudu. syllables mafi a cikin mataninsu.

Halin tarihi na zamani na adabi

An ƙaddamar da ƙarni na XNUMX don aiwatar da al'ummar masana'antu da masu son abin duniya da aka keɓe don yin aiki. Juyin juya halin masana'antu ya gabatar da samfurin al'umma inda mutane suka fi damuwa da samarwa fiye da tunani. A cikin wannan mahallin, zamani na adabi ya taso don kare ƙirƙira, kyakkyawa da fasaha.

Jose Marti.

Jose Marti.

Yana da matukar wahala a gano inda daidai wannan halin yanzu ya taso. Koyaya, Latin Amurka tana jin daɗin manyan marubutan zamani. A hakika, Rubén Darío, wanda aka haife shi a Metapa, Nicaragua, ana ɗauka shi ne mahaifin wannan motsi. Ayyukan wannan marubucin, waɗanda aka fi sani da "Yariman Haruffa na Castilian", suna da Parnassianism da alama da aka yi wahayi daga ayyukan Théophile Gautier da Paul Verlaine.

Ban da Dario, Sauran manyan marubutan tunani waɗanda suka buga a farkon rabin 1880 sune: Cuban Jose Marti, Dominican Max Henríquez Ureña, mawaƙin Cuban Julián del Casal, ɗan ƙasar Mexico Manuel Gutiérrez Nájera, Manuel González Prada ɗan Peru da kuma José Asunción Silva na Colombia. Ana kiran waɗannan masu fasaha "'yan zamani" a matsayin kalma mai ma'ana. Duk da haka, daga baya sun karɓi wannan sunan da fahariya.

Mafi shaharar ayyukan Rubén Darío (1867-1916)

  • Azul (1888);
  • Karin magana da sauran wakoki (1896);
  • Wakokin rayuwa da bege (1905);
  • Ina raira waƙa ga Argentina da sauran waƙoƙi (1914);
  • Da rare (1896).

Sauran ayyukan adabi na zamani

  • Zaman zinare (1878-1882): José Martí;
  • ismaelillo (1882): José Martí;
  • Amphoras, Buga Bazawar Montero (1914): Max Henriquez Urena;
  • Haɗin diflomasiyya (1916) Max Henriquez Urena;
  • Moran, Francisco. Casal a rebours (1996): Julian del Casal;
  • Parnassus na Mexican (1886): Salvador Diaz Miron;
  • fasahar fasaha (1893): Enrique Gomez Carrillo.

Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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