Littattafan Miguel de Unamuno

Littattafai daga Miguel de Unamuno.

Littattafai daga Miguel de Unamuno.

Duk cikin yawan wallafe-wallafensa na rubutu, Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo (1864-1936) ya binciko nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan adabi daban-daban., kamar labari, rubutu, wasan kwaikwayo da kuma shayari. Rubutunsa yana da alaƙa da halayen falsafa na lokacin da asalinsa na Basque, kasancewar sa mabuɗin memba na ƙarni na 98. Tare da Fogi, littafinsa mafi mahimmanci, yayi alama salo wanda yake tsammanin amfani da almara ta hanyar halayen da ba na gaskiya ba.

Gaskiya ga ra'ayin jamhuriya da gurguzu An cire Unamuno sau da yawa daga matsayinsa na zartarwa a Jami'ar Salamanca kuma an kore shi (bisa radin kansa) saboda yawan sukar da yake yiwa Sarki Alfonso XIII. da kuma kama-karya Primo de Rivera a lokacin shekarun 1920. A zahiri, watanni biyu kafin mutuwar masanin Bilbao, Franco ya cire shi ta hanyar doka daga wa'adinsa na karshe a matsayin rector a watan Oktoba 1936.

Mafi mahimman lokuta a rayuwar Miguel de Unamuno

Haihuwa da dangi

Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo an haife shi a ranar 29 ga Satumba, 1864 a Bilbao, Spain. Shi ne na uku a cikin 'ya'ya shida kuma ɗa na farko na auren da ba a sani ba (lalata) tsakanin ɗan kasuwa Félix María de Unamuno da ƙanwarsa mai shekaru goma sha bakwai, María Salomé Crispina Jugo Unamuno. Wannan mahallin mahallin mai rikitarwa ya wakilci amfrayo na rikice-rikicen rikice-rikicen da ke kunshe cikin ayyukansa.

Mutuwar mahaifinsa da yaƙi

Lokacin da yake dan shekara shida, mahaifinsa ya rasu. Jim kaɗan bayan kammala karatunsa na farko a Colegio de San Nicolás, saurayi Miguel ya shaida kewaye garin nasa yayin yakin Carlist na Uku a cikin 1873, wani abin da ya faru daga baya ya bayyana a cikin littafinsa na farko, Aminci a cikin yaƙi. Daga 1875 ya yi karatun sakandare a Cibiyar Bilbao, inda ya yi fice sosai don kyakkyawan maki.

Karatun jami'a

A lokacin kaka na 1880 ya koma babban birnin Spain don karatun Falsafa da Haruffa a Jami'ar Madrid. A can, yana hulɗa da membobin ƙungiyar Krausist. Shekaru huɗu bayan haka, ya kammala karatun digirin digirgir kuma ya koma Bilbao da niyyar kutsawa cikin al'ummar Basque ta hanyar yin rubuce-rubuce, gabatar da taruka da shiga fagen siyasa.

Unamuno, aiki da soyayya

Har zuwa 1891 Unamuno zai kasance "abokin hamayyar da ba a yi sa'a ba", shekarar da ya sami kujerar Helenanci a Jami'ar Salamanca da ya auri budurwarsa, Concha Lizárraga, wanda ta haifa masa yara tara: Fernando Esteban Saturnino (1872-1978), Pablo Gumersindo (1894-1955), Raimundo (1896-), Salomé (1897-1934), Felisa (1897-1980), José (1900-1974), María (1902-1983 ), Rafael (1905-1981) da Ramón (1910-1969).

Mutuwar ɗanta da hutu

A cikin 1894 ya kirkiro shigar sa cikin PSOE, kodayake ya bar shi shekaru uku bayan mummunan rikicin ruhaniya wanda ya mutu sakamakon mutuwar ɗanshi na uku.ko, Raimundo, a cikin 1896 saboda cutar sankarau. Yaushe Aminci a cikin yaƙi An buga shi a cikin 1897, Unamuno yana cikin babbar matsala ta wanzuwar addini.

Tuni a wancan lokacin akwai tsinkaye na rashin tabbas wanda canje-canje ya haifar a ƙarshen ƙarni., wanda aka nuna a cikin aikin Sake sake tsarin mulkin mallaka da Turawan Spain (1898) na Joaquín Costa. A cikin wannan yanayin, "rukuni na uku" (Azorín, Baroja da Unamuno) da kuma waɗanda ake kira ƙarni na 98 sun bayyana tare da dabarun zane-zane-zancensu game da koma bayan ƙasar da sake haifuwa.

Matsayin rekista da sallamarsa saboda dalilai na siyasa

A fagen ilimi, Miguel de Unamuno Ya ci gaba da canzawa har zuwa lokacin da aka nada shi matsayin shugaban jami'ar Salamanca a 1900. Shekaru goma sha biyar masu zuwa sun nuna mafi kyawun lokacinsa a matsayin marubuci, kamar yadda aka tabbatar da hakan Soyayya da tarbiya (1902), Rayuwar Don Quixote da Sancho (1905), Ta cikin kasashen Spain da Fotigal (1911), Halin ban tsoro na rayuwa (1912) y Fogi (1914), tsakanin wasu da yawa.

A cikin 1914 Ma'aikatar Ilmantarwa ta Jama'a ta cire shi daga mukaminsa na rekto saboda dalilai na siyasa., kamar yadda ya kasance koyaushe mutum ne mai damuwa game da yanayin zamantakewar sa. Bayan haka, a cikin 1918 an zabe shi kansila na Salamanca City Council. Shekarar da ta gabata ya buga Abel Sánchez. Labarin so.

A shekarar 1920 aka zabe shi shugaban tsangayar ilimin falsafa da wasiku kuma a 1921 aka nada shi a matsayin mataimakin rector. Hare-haren da yake ci gaba da kaiwa akan Sarki Alfonso XIII da mai mulkin kama-karya Miguel Primo de Rivera ya haifar da wani sabon kora, da kuma gabatar da kara da yanke hukunci (wanda ba a taba kashe shi ba) zuwa shekaru 16 a kurkuku saboda cin mutuncin masarautar.

Gudun son rai

Daga 1924 zuwa 1930 an yi masa gudun hijira bisa son rai a Faransa. Shekarun 5 na ƙarshe na gudun hijirar sun kasance a Hendaye (wani gari wanda yanzu yake cikin Basasar Basque ta Faransa). Bayan faduwar Primo de Rivera, an yaba wa Unamuno bayan dawowar sa kuma ya shiga cikin bukatun da ke neman a kawar da Alfonso XIII.

Komawa ga matsayin rector

Bayan shelar Jamhuriya a cikin 1931, Unamuno ya sake zama shugaban jami'ar Salamanca, Shugaban Majalisar Koyar da Jama'a kuma mataimakin kotunan da aka kafa. A ƙarshe, an san shi a matsayin mai kula da rayuwa bayan ya yi ritaya a 1934 kuma an ƙirƙiri kujera da sunansa.

Mutuwar matarsa ​​da ‘yarsa

Duk da haka, mutuwar matarsa ​​(tare da ta ɗiyarsa Salomé wanda ya faru a 1933) ya sa shi ya fice daga rayuwar jama'a. A watan Yulin shekara ta 1936 yakin basasa ya barke, duk da cewa a matakin farko ya bayyana kansa dan jamhuriya, ba da jimawa ba ya nuna kiyayyarsa ga tsarin mulki kuma ya haifar da tawayen soja. A wancan lokacin, tsohon marubucin bai yarda a yi amfani da shi ba, duk da cewa an kore shi kuma an dawo da shi daga matsayinsa.

Unamuno akan Millán Astray

A ranar 12 ga Oktoba, 1936, a yayin bikin "idin tsere", Miguel de Unamuno ya yi aikin jarumta na karshe lokacin da ya tunkari Janar Millán Astray saboda "ƙiyayyar hankali." Matsakaiciyar Carmen Polo kawai - matar Franco - ta hana ɗimbin masu kishin addinin Franco bugun mai ilimi. Amma kafin barin wurin, Unamuno ya ba da amsa wanda yana daga cikin akidun tarihin Sifen:

“Za ku ci nasara, amma ba za ku shawo ba. Za ku ci nasara saboda kuna da yawan ƙarfin zalunci, amma ba za ku shawo ba saboda shawowa yana nufin lallashewa. Kuma don lallashe ku kuna buƙatar wani abu da kuka rasa a wannan yaƙin, dalili da daidai. Da alama ba shi da amfani a gare ni in tambaye ku kuyi tunani game da Spain ”.

Miguel de Unamuno.

Miguel de Unamuno.

Mutuwa

Miguel de Unamuno ya rayu kwanakinsa na ƙarshe a ƙarƙashin tsare gida, a gidansa. Can ya mutu ba zato ba tsammani a ranar 31 ga Disamba, 1936.

Littattafan Miguel de Unamuno

Tunani da layin falsafa na aikinsa

Unamuno da addini

Abubuwan da suka saɓawa tsakanin addini, kimiyya da ƙarfin ilhami na yau da kullun sune jigogi a cikin aikin sa. Dangane da wannan, marubucin Basque ya bayyana:

“Abinda na sa gaba ya kasance, zai kasance kuma zai kasance wadanda suke karanta ni suna tunani da yin bimbini a kan muhimman abubuwa, kuma bai taba ba su tunani na gaskiya ba. A koyaushe ina neman tayar da hankali, kuma, a mafi akasari, don bayar da shawara maimakon koyarwa ”.

A wannan ma'anar, Andrés Escobar V. ya bayyana a cikin nazarin adabinsa (2013) cewa Miguel de Unamuno “ya nuna yadda ake haɗuwa a cikin adabi da falsafa rai da mutuwa ga duk waɗanda suka shiga ciki (marubuci, haruffa da kuma mai karatu), a matsayin abin da yake cike da rikitarwa game da rayuwa yin tafiya mai ma'ana dangane da ra'ayoyi guda uku wadanda suke adabi, falsafa da rayuwa ”.

Wannan halayyar ta bayyana a cikin Aminci a cikin yaƙi (1897), wanda takensa ya riga ya haifar - ba tare da gabatarwa ba - sabani a cikin mai magana da shi. Basque falsafa ya rubuta a ɗayan sakin layi nasa:

“A cikin tsananin tunanin rayuwarsa Pedro Antonio ya ji daɗin sabon abu kowane minti, da jin daɗin yin abubuwa iri ɗaya a kowace rana da kuma cika iyakarsa.

Ya rasa kansa a inuwa, ya tafi ba tare da an sani ba, yana jin daɗi, a cikin fatarsa ​​kamar kifi a cikin ruwa, kusancin rayuwar aiki, duhu da shiru, a cikin gaskiyar kansa, ba da bayyanar wasu ba. Kasancewar sa ya gudana kamar wani lami mai laushi, tare da jita-jita da ba a ji ba kuma ba zai gane ba har sai an katse shi ”.

Unamuno a cewar Luis Jiménez Moreno

A cewar Luis Jiménez Moreno na Jami'ar Complutense na Madrid, “Unamuno yana ba da muhimmiyar masaniya da falsafaa kan sanin tabbataccen mutum a cikin rashin yiwuwar fahimtar mutum ta hankali saboda mummunan tashin hankali na rayuwa tare da dalili, saboda gaskiya ita ce ta sa muke rayuwa, neman gaskiya a rayuwa da rayuwa cikin gaskiya ”.

Sakamakon haka, rayuwa, mutuwa da hankali sun mamaye ra'ayoyi a cikin mummunan faɗa. na dindindin wanda ke bayyana halin ruhaniyar marubucin. Hakanan, ainihi da mahimmin abu suna tabbatar da suna da matsayi mai mahimmanci a cikin waƙoƙin Unamuno. Wadannan fannoni sun bayyana sosai a cikin aikinsa Fogi (1914), inda baya yarda da sha'awar "son zama wani shine son dakatar da kasancewa ɗaya wanda yake".

Unamuno a cewar Katrine Helene Andersen

A cewar Katrine Helene Andersen daga Jami'ar Mariae Curie-Skłodowska a Poland (2011), "… tun farkon bugawa, Unamuno da alama yana yiwa kansa tambayoyin yana neman amsa a cikin tabbatar da yiwuwar akasin hakaKusa da nuna wariyar launin fata (1895) ya haɗu da rubuce-rubucen da ke nuna wasu matsaloli na asali waɗanda daga baya za su addabi mai tunani. "

A cikin wannan rubutun Unamuno ya yi gargadin cewa ya jingina ga hanyar “… madadin tabbatar da saɓani; an fi so a nuna karfi na wuce gona da iri a cikin ruhin mai karatu ta yadda muhalli zai dauki rayuwa a ciki, wanda sakamakon gwagwarmaya ne ”. Marubucin ya kira wannan mawuyacin mawuyacin halin "yanayin rayuwar."

Hakazalika, ana kusantar da sabanin ra'ayi ta hanyar hangen nesa sosai a cikin Halin ban tsoro na rayuwa (1912). A can, Unamuno ya tabbatar da cewa “mutum, sun ce, dabba ce mai hankali. Ban san dalilin da ya sa ba a faɗi cewa dabba ce mai motsa rai ko jin daɗi ba ”. Koyaya, marubucin ya bayyana bayyananniyar ma'ana tsakanin mai hankali da ikon falsafa, kasancewa mafi kyawun halaye masu alaƙa da so.

Littafin falsafa ne tare da ra'ayoyi masu adawa da juna waɗanda suke tare a cikin rubutu ta ɗabi'a, kamar yadda nassi mai zuwa ya nuna: “bangaskiya cikin rashin mutuwa rashin hankali ne. Duk da haka, imani, rayuwa, da hankali suna buƙatar juna. Wannan dogon buri ba matsala ba ce yadda ya kamata, ba zai iya daukar yanayi mai ma'ana ba, ba za a iya tsara shi cikin shawarwarin da za a iya muhawara ba, amma ana yi mana ne, kamar yadda yunwa take yi ”.

Ku sani, Auna da Tarbiya

A gefe guda, Unamuno ya nuna a cikin littafin Auna da Tarbiya (1902) amincewar da kimiyya tayi masa yayin aiwatar da ka'idojinsa ta hanyar "ilimin zamantakewar al'umma." Kodayake ana iya iyakance halayyar maza da mata ta hanyar '' yankewar aure '', soyayya tana nan a matsayin wacce ba za a iya hango ta ba wacce za ta kai ga cin nasarar karfin ilhami kan ka'idojin kimiyya.

In ji Miguel de Unamuno.

In ji Miguel de Unamuno.

Ku sani, Abel Sánchez. Labarin so

Ofaya daga cikin rubuce-rubucensa wanda yake bincika halayen zamantakewar ɗabi'ar Mutanen Espanya shine Abel Sánchez. Labarin so (1917). Littafin labari ne wanda makircin sa ya ta'allaka ne da "cainism" (hassada), wanda ke iya lulluɓe kyawawan halaye na jaruman har sai ya kai ga haɗari da haɗarin ƙarfi.

Wakoki da litattafan tafiye-tafiye

Game da waƙoƙi, Unamuno ya fahimce shi azaman fasaha mai nuna damuwar ruhaniya. Ya inganta batutuwa iri ɗaya a cikin rubutunsa: damuwa da zafi da rashin Allah ya haifar, wucewar lokaci da tabbacin mutuwa. An nuna wannan halin a cikin littattafai kamar Rosary na waƙoƙin waƙoƙi (1911), Kiristi na Velázquez (1920), Waƙoƙi daga ciki (1923) y Littafin Waƙoƙi na Gudun Hijira (1928), da sauransu.

A ƙarshe, sanannen sanannen fasalin Miguel de Unamuno shine littattafan tafiyarsa. Kuma ba safai ake samun sa ba, saboda ya buga rubutu sama da rabin dozin (biyu daga cikinsu, bayan bayanan). Daga cikin waɗannan, waɗannan masu zuwa sun bambanta: Bayanan kula daga tafiya zuwa Faransa, Italiya da Switzerland (1889, buga a cikin 2017), Gidajen ƙasa (1902), Ta cikin kasashen Portugal da Spain (1911) y Madrid, Castile (wanda aka buga a 2001).


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  1. Mai alhakin bayanan: Miguel Ángel Gatón
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