Julio Cortázar: wakoki

Magana daga Julio Cortázar

Magana daga Julio Cortázar

Julio Cortázar fitaccen marubuci ɗan Argentina ne wanda ya yi fice a fagen adabi na duniya don keɓancewar rubutunsa. Asalinsa ya kai shi ga fayyace muhimman ayyukan wakoki, litattafai, gajerun labarai, gajerun labarai da mabambanta. A lokacin, aikinsa ya karya tare da alamu; ya yi tafiya tare da cikakken 'yanci da rinjaye tsakanin surrealism da hakikanin sihiri.

A cikin dogon aikinsa, Cortazar ya gina ƙaƙƙarfan tarin littattafai masu ma'ana da ma'ana. Ba don komai ba an dauke daya daga cikin manyan marubuta na lamarin adabi da aka sani da "latin american albarku". Ya kuma yi fice a matsayin mai fassara a hukumar ta Unesco da kuma wasu gidajen buga littattafai. A cikin wannan sana'a ta ƙarshe, ayyukansa akan ayyukan: Edgar Allan Poe, Daniel Defoe, André Gide, Marguerite Yourcenar da Carol Dunlop sun fito waje.

Ayyukan waƙar Julio Cortázar

Presencia (1938)

An buga rubutun a cikin 1938 a ƙarƙashin sunan Julio Denis. Takaitaccen bugu ne wanda Editorial El Bibliófilo ya gabatar. An buga kwafi 250 ne kawai, waɗanda suka ƙunshi 43 sonnets. A cikin wa] annan wa] annan wa] annan wa] annan wa] annan wa] annan wa] annan wa] annan wa] ansu sun yi rinjaye, ban da neman sulhu da zaman lafiya. Cortazar Bai yi alfahari da wannan aikin ba, ya dauki shi a matsayin wani aiki na sha'awa da rashin balaga, don haka ya ki sake buga shi.

A cikin 1971, a cikin wata hira da JG Santana, marubucin yayi sharhi game da waɗannan ayyukan: "Zunubin samartaka wanda ba wanda ya sani kuma ba na nunawa kowa. Yana da kyau boye…”. Ko da yake an san kaɗan game da wannan littafin, an kubutar da wasu daga cikin waɗannan sonets, ɗaya daga cikinsu shine:

"Kida"

I

Dare

Suna yin ibadar dare sau biyu, suna jira

na takobi orange - zubar

mara iyaka, oleander akan naman fuka-fuki-

kuma lilies suna wasa a cikin bazara.

Sun ƙaryata - ƙaryatãwa game da kanka - kakin zuma swans

shafan da aka yi da takobi;

suna tafiya - tafi ku - arewa babu inda

yin kumfa har sai rana ta mutu.

An halicci bangon jiragen sama na musamman.

Disk, da faifai! Dube shi, Jacinto,

Ka yi tunani yadda ya saukar da tsayinsa!

Kiɗa na girgije, melopea

sanya don samar da jirginsa

Dole ne ya zama jana'izar maraice.

Pameos da meopas (1971)

Ita ce tarin wakoki na farko da aka buga da sunansa. Yana da harhadawa da waqoqinsa da dama. Cortázar ya yi jinkirin gabatar da waƙarsa, ya kasance mai jin kunya sosai kuma yana da hankali game da abubuwan da ya rubuta a cikin wannan nau'in. Dangane da haka, ya yi sharhi: "Ni tsohon mawaƙi ne [...] ko da yake na ajiye kusan duk abin da aka rubuta a cikin wannan layi ba a buga ba fiye da shekaru talatin da biyar."

Siyarwa Pameos da Meopas ...
Pameos da Meopas ...
Babu sake dubawa

A cikin 2017, Editorial Nórdica ya ba marubucin girmamawa ta hanyar buga wannan aikin, wanda ke nuna waƙar da ya rubuta daga 1944 zuwa 1958. Littafin ya kasu kashi shida -Kowanne da take -, waxanda ke qunshe tsakanin waqoqi biyu zuwa huxu, ba tare da wata alaqa a tsakaninsu ko ranar da aka yi bayani ba. Duk da sanannen bambanci tsakanin kowane nassi - rashin daidaituwa a cikin mai karɓar, batun, girmansa ko rhythm - suna kiyaye salon halayen su. Wannan fitowar ta ƙunshi kwatanci na Pablo Auladell. Daya daga cikin waqoqin ita ce:

"Maida"

In bansan komai a bakinki ba sai murya

kuma daga nonon ku kawai koren riga ko lemu.

yadda ake fahariya da samun ku

fiye da alherin inuwar da ke ratsa ruwa.

A cikin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya ina ɗaukar motsi, pout

yadda farin ciki ya sa ni, kuma haka

don zama a cikin kanku, tare da lanƙwasa

kwantar da hoton hauren giwa.

Wannan ba wani babban abu bane da na bari.

Hakanan ra'ayi, fushi, theories,

sunayen yan'uwa maza da mata,

adireshin gidan waya da tarho,

hotuna biyar, turaren gashi,

wani matsi na kananan hannaye inda babu wanda zai ce

cewa duniya tana boye min.

Ina ɗaukar komai ba tare da wahala ba, na rasa shi kaɗan da kaɗan.

Ba zan ƙirƙira ƙaryar dawwama ba.

mafi kyau a haye gadoji da hannuwanku

cike da ku,

yaga memory dina,

bada shi ga kurciyoyi, ga masu aminci

sparrows, bari su cinye ku

tsakanin wakoki da surutu da harbawa.

Sai faɗuwar rana (1984)

Kundin wakoki ne da marubucin ya wallafa jim kadan bayan rasuwarsa. Rubutun shine nunin abubuwan da kuke so, abubuwan tunawa da ji. Abubuwan da aka tsara suna da yawa, ban da abubuwan da ya faru, suna nuna ƙaunarsa ga biranensa biyu: Buenos Aires da Paris. A cikin wannan aiki ya kuma karrama wasu mawakan da suka nuna alamar samuwarsa.

A cikin 2009, Editorial Alfaguara ya gabatar da sabon bugu na wannan tarin wakoki, wanda sun haɗa da rubutun gyare-gyaren da marubucin ya yi. Don haka, an gyara kurakuran da ke cikin ainihin littafin da sauran bugu. Sonnet mai zuwa wani ɓangare ne na wannan ɗaba'ar:

"Biyu ƙirƙira"

Lokacin furen da ke motsa mu

boye sharuddan tafiya,

lokacin da yake cikin lokacin shimfidar wuri

kalmar dusar ƙanƙara ta shafe,

za a sami soyayya wanda a ƙarshe zai ɗauke mu

zuwa jirgin fasinja,

kuma a wannan hannun ba tare da sako ba

zai tada alamar ku mai laushi.

Ina tsammanin ni ne saboda na ƙirƙira ku.

alchemy na mikiya a cikin iska

daga yashi da duhu,

kuma ku a cikin wannan vigil karfafa

inuwar da kuke haskaka ni da ita

kuma ya yi gunaguni cewa ka ƙirƙira ni.

Sauran waqoqin marubucin

"Dare"

A daren yau hannayena sun yi baki, zuciyata ta yi gumi

kamar bayan yaƙin mantawa da hayaƙi centipedes.

An bar komai a wurin, kwalabe, jirgin ruwa,

Ban sani ba ko suna sona, kuma ko suna tsammanin ganina.

A cikin jaridar da ke kwance akan gado tana cewa taron diflomasiyya,

wani mai bincike sangria ya buge shi cikin farin ciki cikin sahu hudu.

Wani babban daji ya kewaye wannan gidan da ke tsakiyar birnin.

Na sani, ina jin cewa makaho yana mutuwa a kusa.

Matata tana hawa da sauka dan tsani

kamar kyaftin mai rashin aminta da taurari….

 

"The good boy"

Ba zan iya kwance takalmana in bar birni ya ciji ƙafata ba
Ba zan bugu a karkashin gadoji ba, Ba zan yi kuskure a cikin salon ba.
Na yarda da wannan kaddara ta rigar ƙarfe,
Ina zuwa gidajen sinima a kan lokaci, na bar wurin zama na ga mata.
Dogon rashin hankali yana da kyau a gare ni.

 

"Abokan"

A cikin taba, a cikin kofi, a cikin ruwan inabi,
a gefen dare suka tashi
kamar waɗancan muryoyin waɗanda suke waƙa a nesa
ba tare da sanin menene ba, a hanya.

Lyan'uwan sauƙi na ƙaddara,
Dioscuri, inuwa kodadde, suna bani tsoro
kwari na ɗabi'a, sun riƙe ni
ci gaba da shawagi a tsakiyar kewayawa.

Matattu sun fi magana amma a kunne,
kuma rayayyu hannu ne mai dumi da rufi,
Jimlar abin da aka samu da abin da aka rasa.

Don haka wata rana a cikin jirgin ruwan inuwa,
daga rashi sosai kirjina zai fake
wannan tsohuwar taushin da yake sanya su.

"Barka da sabon shekara"

 

Duba, ba na tambaya da yawa

hannunka kawai, da shi

kamar ƴar ɗan yatsa mai bacci mai daɗi haka.

Ina bukatan kofar da ka ba ni

don shiga duniyar ku, wannan ɗan guntun

na kore sugar, na fara'a zagaye.

Ba za ku ba ni aron hannun ku a daren nan ba

Sabuwar shekara ta jajibirin jajibirin mujiya?

Ba za ku iya ba, saboda dalilai na fasaha. Sannan

Ina shimfiɗa shi a cikin iska, ina saƙa kowane yatsa,

silky peach na dabino

da baya, waccan ƙasar bishiyoyi shuɗi.

Don haka na karba na rike, kamar

idan ya dogara da shi

yawan duniya,

rabon yanayi hudu,

kukan zakaru, son maza.

Takaitaccen tarihin marubucin

An haifi Julio Florencio Cortázar a ranar 26 ga Agusta, 1914 a yankin kudancin Ixelles a Brussels, Belgium. Iyayensa sune María Herminia Descotte da Julio José Cortázar, dukansu na asalin Argentine. A lokacin. mahaifinsa ya yi aiki a matsayin hadimin kasuwanci na ofishin jakadancin Argentina.

Magana daga Julio Cortázar

Magana daga Julio Cortázar

Komawa Argentina

Lokacin da yakin duniya na farko ya kusa ƙarewa, iyalin sun yi nasarar barin Belgium; Sun fara isa Switzerland sannan kuma a Barcelona. Lokacin da Cortázar yana da shekaru hudu, ya isa Argentina. Ya rayu a ƙuruciyarsa a Banfield - kudu da Buenos Aires -, tare da mahaifiyarsa, 'yar uwarsa Ofelia da inna.

Yarinta mai wahala

Ga Cortázar, yarinta ya cika da baƙin ciki. Ya sha wahalar watsi da mahaifinsa yana dan shekara 6 bai sake jin duriyarsa ba. Bugu da kari, ya shafe lokaci mai tsawo a gado, domin kullum yana fama da cututtuka iri-iri. Sai dai wannan lamarin ya kara kusantar da shi ga karatu. Yana ɗan shekara tara kawai, ya riga ya karanta Victor Hugo, Jules Verne da Edgar Allan Poe, wanda ya haifar da maimaita mafarkin.

Ya zama saurayi na musamman. Baya ga karatun da yake yi a kai a kai, ya shafe sa’o’i yana nazarin ƙamus na Little Larousse. Wannan al'amari ya dame mahaifiyarta sosai har ta ziyarci shugaban makarantarsu da likita ta tambaye su ko halin da ake ciki ne. Dukkanin ƙwararrun ƙwararrun biyu sun shawarce shi da ya guji karatun yaron na tsawon rabin shekara, aƙalla, har ma da yin wanka.

Karamin marubuci

Lokacin da ya kusa cika shekaru 10, Cortázar ya rubuta ɗan gajeren labari, ban da wasu labarai da sonnets. Wadannan ayyuka ba su da kurakurai, wanda ya sa danginsa rashin yarda da cewa shi ne ya samar da su. Marubucin ya yi ikirari a lokuta da dama cewa wannan lamari ya jawo masa tsananin damuwa.

Karatu

Ya halarci makarantar firamare a Makaranta mai lamba 10 a Banfield, sannan ya shiga Makarantar Malamai ta al'ada ta Mariano Acosta. A 1932, ya sauke karatu a matsayin malami na al'ada kuma bayan shekaru uku a matsayin Farfesa na Wasika. Daga baya, ya shiga Jami'ar Buenos Aires don nazarin Falsafa. Ya bar makarantar bayan ya wuce shekara ta farko, saboda ya yanke shawarar yin sana'ar sa don ya taimaki mahaifiyarsa.

Kwarewar aiki

Ya fara koyarwa a garuruwa daban-daban na ƙasar, ciki har da Bolívar da Chivilcoy. A karshen ya rayu kusan shekaru shida (1939-1944) kuma ya koyar da adabi a Makarantar Al'ada. A cikin 1944, ya koma Mendoza kuma ya koyar da darussan adabin Faransanci a Jami'ar Kasa ta Cuyo. A lokacin ya buga labarinsa na farko mai suna "Mayya" a cikin mujallar Wasikar adabi.

Bayan shekaru biyu - bayan nasarar Peronism -. Ya yi murabus daga aikin koyarwa kuma ya koma Buenos Aires. inda ya fara aiki a dakin karatu na Argentine. Ba da daɗewa ba, ya buga labarin "Gidan da aka ɗauka" a cikin mujallar Annals na Buenos Aires Jorge Luis Borges ne ke gudanarwa—. Daga baya ya gabatar da ƙarin ayyuka a wasu sanannun mujallu, kamar: Hakikanin Gaskiya, A da kuma Jaridar Nazari na gargajiya daga Jami'ar Kuyo.

Cancanci a matsayin mai fassara da farkon wallafe-wallafen ku

A cikin 1948, Cortázar ya cancanci zama mai fassara daga Ingilishi da Faransanci. Wannan kwas ɗin ya ɗauki shekaru uku yana kammala, amma ya ɗauki watanni tara kawai. Bayan shekara guda, ya gabatar da waka ta farko da aka sanya wa sunansa: “Los reyes”; Bugu da ƙari, ya buga littafinsa na farko: Nishadi. A 1951 ya saki Bala'i, aikin da ya tattara labarai takwas kuma ya ba shi karbuwa a Argentina. Ba da daɗewa ba, ya koma Paris saboda rashin jituwa da gwamnatin Shugaba Perón.

A cikin 1953 ya yarda da shawarar Jami'ar Puerto Rico don fassara cikakken rubutun zuwa littafin Edgar Allan Poe.. Masu suka sun ɗauki wannan aikin a matsayin mafi kyawun kwafin aikin marubucin Ba'amurke.

Mutuwa

Bayan fiye da shekaru 30 yana zaune a kasar Faransa, shugaba François Mitterrand ya ba shi dan kasa. A cikin 1983, marubucin ya dawo na ƙarshe - bayan dawowar mulkin demokraɗiyya - zuwa Argentina. Ba da daɗewa ba, Cortázar ya koma Paris, inda Ya rasu a ranar 12 ga Fabrairu, 1984 saboda cutar sankarar bargo.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

Kasance na farko don yin sharhi

Bar tsokaci

Your email address ba za a buga.

*

*

  1. Mai alhakin bayanan: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Dalilin bayanan: Gudanar da SPAM, gudanar da sharhi.
  3. Halacci: Yarda da yarda
  4. Sadarwar bayanan: Ba za a sanar da wasu bayanan ga wasu kamfanoni ba sai ta hanyar wajibcin doka.
  5. Ajiye bayanai: Bayanin yanar gizo wanda Occentus Networks (EU) suka dauki nauyi
  6. Hakkoki: A kowane lokaci zaka iyakance, dawo da share bayanan ka.

bool (gaskiya)