José Ortega da Gasset

In ji José Ortega y Gasset.

In ji José Ortega y Gasset.

José Ortega y Gasset yana ɗaya daga cikin manyan masana falsafa tun zamanin zamani. Bugu da kari, ana ɗaukarsa ɗayan mafi tasirin muryar masu magana da Sifen na ƙarni na XNUMX kuma tabbas mafi mahimmancin "mai tunani" a tarihin Spain. Don abubuwan da take gabatarwa koyaushe suna ko'ina a wani yanki cikin layin tunani na ɗari da goma sha tara.

Daya daga cikin sanannun cancantar aikinsa shine kusantar da karatun falsafa kusa da "gama gari". Nisa daga gurbatattun siffofin, rubuce-rubucensa suna da iya lafazin adabi wanda zai bawa kowane mai karatu damar shiga ba tare da matsala ba a cikin duniyar ra'ayoyi. Sabili da haka, salo ne wanda yawancin masana ke kwatankwacinsa tare da daidaituwa tsakanin kyau da saukin kai wanda Miguel de Cervantes ya samu.

Tarihin Rayuwa

José Ortega y Gasset an haife shi a Madrid a ranar 9 ga Mayu, 1883, a cikin ɗabi'a mai wadata da wadata. An kashe kyakkyawan ɓangaren yarintarsa ​​a Malaga, Andalusia. A kan Costa del Sol ya halarci makarantar firamare da sakandare. Daga baya, Jami'ar Deusto, a Bilbao, tare da Babban Jami'ar Madrid, sun zama gidajen karatun su.

Matashi José ɗalibi ne mai ɗabi'a mai kyau, har ya zuwa wannan Yana dan shekara 21 kacal, ya riga ya sami digirin digirgir a fannin Falsafa. Takardunku na PhD, Tsoratarwa ta shekara dubu, Shahararren labari ne wanda aka fayyace shi ta hanya madaukakiya. Hakanan, masanan Ortega galibi suna ambaton wannan aikin a matsayin farkon ayyukansa.

Koyaushe yana da alaƙa da aikin jarida

Gabaɗaya faɗi, dangin José Ortega y Gasset koyaushe suna da alaƙa sosai da aikin jarida da siyasa. "Gadon gado" ne wanda kakan mahaifinsa, Eduardo Gasset da Artime, wanda suka kafa jaridar suka fara Rashin Rashin Gaskiya. Daga baya, mahaifinsa, José Ortega Munilla ne ke gudanar da wannan aikin. Tarihin wannan jaridar ba ƙarami ba ne a cikin aikin jaridar Spain.

Buɗe mai sassauci, Rashin Rashin Gaskiya Ya kasance ɗayan kamfanoni masu zaman kansu na farko da suka yunƙura cikin "kasuwancin bayanai." Wannan sabon abu ne a cikin fagen da jam'iyyun siyasa suka mallaka. Daidai, "al'adar iyali" ta ci gaba da ɗayan Ora Oran Ortega y Gasset, José Ortega Spottoro, wanda ya kafa El País.

Rayuwar ilimi

Tsakanin 1905 da 1910, José Ortega y Gasset ya zagaya Jamus don ci gaba da horo; don haka ya sami tasiri mai ƙarfi na tunanin neo-Kantian. Bayan ya dawo Spain, ya fara koyar da darasi a cikin ilimin halayyar dan adam, dabaru da da'a a Escuela Superior del Magisterio a Madrid. Har ila yau, ya koma aikinsa na almajiranci a Madrid, a wannan karon ya hau kujerar mulkin ilimin sifa.

Tare da aikin koyarwarsa - yayin da yake balaga ayyukan da za su bayyana nan da nan lokacin da ya fara bugawa - ya ɗauki nauyin aikin jarida na mafi girma. A zahiri, a cikin 1915 ya ɗauki jagorancin mako-mako España. Wannan littafin ya nuna matsayin mai nuna goyon baya ga Hadin gwiwa yayin Yaƙin na Yaki.

Da'awar shahara

A wancan lokacin ya kasance mai ba da gudummawa ga jaridar Madrid Rana. Daidai can za su “fara”, a cikin sigar siliman, biyu daga cikin wakilinsa da yawa: Invertebrate Spain y tawaye na taro. Na biyun (wanda aka buga a matsayin littafi a cikin 1929), Ya kasance mafi nasara a cikin kundin adireshin José Ortega y Gasset dangane da yaɗuwa da tallace-tallace.

Tawayen 'yan tawaye.

Tawayen 'yan tawaye.

Kuna iya siyan littafin anan:Babu kayayyakin samu.

tawaye na taro An fassara shi zuwa fiye da harsuna 20 kuma ana ɗaukarsa muhimmin aiki tsakanin ilimin ilimin ɗan adam da falsafar zamani. Domin a cikin wannan rubutun marubucin zai yi wasici ga dan adam daya daga cikin ra'ayoyin da aka tattauna na karnin da ya gabata: na "mutum - taro". Wani aikin alamar shine Mutumin da mutanen.

Rayuwar siyasa

Da zarar mulkin kama-karya na Primo de Rivera ya kare kuma bayan an kafa Jamhuriya ta Biyu, José Ortega y Gasset ya fara takaitaccen aikin siyasa. A cikin 1931 an zabe shi mataimakin a Kotunan Republican na Lardin na León.

A waccan shekarar, tare da manufar shiga cikin farfadowar al'umma, Ortega y Gasset, tare da babban rukuni na masana, sun kafa ingungiya a Hidimar Jamhuriyar. Jam'iyya ce ta siyasa (kodayake sun ƙi amfani da wannan bambancin) waɗanda ke da goyan bayan ra'ayin jamhuriya da ci gaba.

Yakin basasa da kaura

Shekaru masu zuwa sun kasance masu baƙin ciki ga Ortega y Gasset saboda jagorancin tattaunawar game da sabon tsarin doka na Spain. Har ila yau, ya gama fusata da irin gudanarwar gwamnati. A cikin rikice-rikice, annabta implosion na dukan aikin saboda da'awar utopian da yawa. Hakanan, ya soki babban tasirin (har yanzu) da aka ba malamai.

A ƙarshe, tsinkayarsa ta sami ƙarfi a inuwar yakin basasa. Ta hanyar jarumtaka, ya sami nasarar barin ƙasar a dai dai lokacin da rikici tsakanin ɓangarorin da ke takaddama ya kai ƙarshensa. A cikin shekaru goma masu zuwa ya kasance tsakanin Faransa, Netherlands da Argentina, har sai da ya sami damar zama a Lisbon. Daga Fotigal ya sami nasarar komawa Spain, tare da Franco wanda ya riga ya sami iko sosai.

Yi sulhu da coci?

José Ortega y Gasset ya mutu a ranar 18 ga Oktoba, 1955. Jim kaɗan bayan haka, Wasu mutanen da ke kusa da shi sun yi iƙirarin cewa masanin falsafar ya kusanci Cocin Katolika a ƙarshen rayuwarsa. Amma danginsa sun karyata wadannan juzu'an ... Sun sanya su a matsayin labaran karya ta hanyar kafafen yada labarai na son zuciya, wadanda ke karkashin ikon ikon cocin.

Falsafar Ortega y Gasset

Ilimin falsafa na Ortega y Gasset - tare da bambance-bambancen karatu a cikin matakai daban-daban na rayuwarsa- ana iya takaita su a ƙarƙashin laima guda: ta hangen nesa. A dunkule, wannan ra'ayin yana nuna cewa babu gaskiya na dindindin kuma wanda ba zai motsa ba, amma tarin gaskiya daban daban ne.

"Gaskiya" na Ortega y Gasset

Hankali shine kowane mutum ma'abocin gaskiyar sa ne, waxanda babu makawa sharadin yanayin su. Ta wannan hanyar, ɗayan shahararrun kalmominsa sun bayyana: "Ni ne da yanayina, kuma idan ban tseratar da ita ba, ba zan ceci kaina ba." (Don Quixote Tunani, 1914).

Mutumin da mutanen.

Mutumin da mutanen.

Kuna iya siyan littafin anan: Mutum da mutane

Hakazalika, ya gabatar da hutu tare da shahararrun ra'ayoyin Descartian, "Ina tsammanin, saboda haka ni ne." Ya bambanta, José Ortega y Gasset ya sanya rayuwa a matsayin jigon komai. Sabili da haka, ba tare da kasancewar wani mai rai ba, ƙarni na tunani ba zai yiwu ba.

Babban dalili

Wannan tunanin yana dauke da "juyin halitta" na ma'anar hankali a tsarkakakkiyar sigarsa, wanda aka gabatar yayin Zamanin Zamani. A wannan lokacin, bayanin da aka yarda dashi ya iyakance samun ilimin kawai ta hanyar ilimin kimiyar halitta. A gefe guda, don Ortega y Gasset ilimin kimiyyar ɗan adam yana da irin wannan dacewar da na sauran ilimin.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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  1.   Gustavo Woltmann ne adam wata m

    Ortega y Gasset mutum ne mai kwarjini, ya bar tarihi a kan falsafar Spain, da ma ta duniya. Na tuna cewa ɗaya daga cikin littattafansa na farko da na sami damar karantawa shi ne Lecciones de Metafísica, mai ban mamaki ne kawai.

    - Gustavo Woltmann.

bool (gaskiya)