Jorge Manrique

Jumla daga Jorge Manrique.

Jumla daga Jorge Manrique.

Jorge Manrique shahararren mawaƙin Sifen ne na pre-Renaissance. Kodayake ranar da ya zo duniya ba ta bayyana ba, akwai wata yarjejeniya da ta sanya shi a cikin Paredes de Nava (a halin yanzu, Castilla y León) a cikin shekara ta 1440. A kowane hali, abin da ba za a iya musunwa ba shi ne jijiyoyin ilimi da ke cikin dangi mai iko da tasiri na masarautar Castilian.

Abubuwan da aka ambata a baya sun ƙarfafa ta gaskiyar cewa kawunsa shine mashahurin mawaƙi Gómez Manrique kuma mahaifinsa shine Rodrigo Manrique, Count of Paredes de Nava. DAn kuruciyarsa ya yi karatun sanin halayyar dan Adam kuma a bangaren sojoji. Har ma ya sami nasarar shiga cikin gwagwarmaya da sojoji daban-daban. Daidai, a daya daga cikin wadannan rikice-rikicen, ya yada kalmar "ba karya ko nadama".

Mutuwar wuri

Duk da cewa bai yi saurin mutuwa ba, yana da lokacin da zai auri Misis Guiomar de Castañeda kuma ya haifi yara biyu: Luir da Luisa. Mutuwar ta faru ne a shekarar 1479, lokacin yana dan shekara 39 kawai, yayin yakin maye gurbin Isabel da Juana la Beltraneja. Yau an binne shi a cikin gidan sufi na Uclés.

Aikin adabi na Jorge Manrique

Yawancin rubuce-rubucen mawallafin Paredeño sun sami damar ƙetare lokaci kuma, tare da shi, sun sami nasara a cikin rashin mutuwa. SWaqoqinsa sun bi layin mai ban dariya da burlesu, ba tare da manta soyayya ba. Sanannen aikinsa shine Elegy Coplas har zuwa mutuwar mahaifinsa, daraja a matsayin gaskiya classic na Mutanen Espanya adabi.

Abubuwa

Bayan mutuwarsa a cikin cikakkiyar ilimin halitta, sadaukar da kai ga rubutu ya kasance mai ban sha'awa. Duk da rashin ɗan lokaci, Manrique ya sami damar rubuta ayyuka da yawa. Wadanda malamai suka kasu kashi uku: masu kauna, masu kwazo da koyarwa. Kusan dukkansu suna cikin iyakokin waƙoƙin waƙoƙi na lokacin.

Wakokin marubucin Castilian sun kunshi kusan guda 50. A cikinsu yana magance lalata ta hanyar maganganu masu kyau, (don lokacinta wannan ya wakilci abin kunya). Koyaya, bai yi kasa a gwiwa ba wajen aiwatar da yarjeniyoyin yare na waƙoƙin Provençal. Wato, waƙar a cikin ayar octosyllable, maimaita kalmomi da abubuwan yaƙi a cikin alaƙar soyayya.

Wakokin soyayya

A cikin abubuwan da ya tsara marubucin ya yi amfani da waƙoƙin fitina. Bugu da kari, a cikin wakokinsa da yawa ya yi ishara da rayuwarsa ta sirri. Sabili da haka, keɓaɓɓu ne wanda ke haɓaka darajar su a matsayin ɓangaren tarihi (kuma, ba shakka, yana ƙarfafa mahimmancin ilimin su).

Emsananan waƙoƙi

Daga cikin kananan baitocin Jorge Manrique, daya daga cikin sanannu shine Na sana'ar da yayi cikin tsari na soyayya (na kawai 9 ayoyi). Anan yana nuna sadaukarwa ga ƙaunataccen cikin tsarin addini wanda yayi la'akari da alwashin talauci da biyayya.

Wani daga cikin waƙoƙinsa na alama shi ne Ma'aunin soyayya, a ciki yana kare dangantakar soyayya kanta a matsayin wani abu mai mahimmanci. Hakazalika, en Gidan soyayya Yi nazarin ƙauna ta gari, inda uwargidan ke haskakawa tare da kyaututtukanta, yayin da ƙaunatacciyarta ke yin aikin sha'awar waɗannan kyawawan halaye.

Abubuwan burlesque

A cikin wannan salon, Jorge Manrique ya ɓullo da zafin rai kai tsaye. Har ila yau, fashe a bakin ciki cewa ba duk masu karatun sa suke so ba. Wannan layi yana da guda uku kawai. En Zuwa ga wani dan uwanta wanda yake hanata lamuranta na soyayya, yana amfani da ma'anar ninki biyu don yin kamanceceniya tsakanin ƙaunataccen soyayya da maɗaukakiyar lafazi mai suna iri ɗaya (prima)

Duk da yake a Coplas ga bashin da ya sanya ƙararrawa a cikin gidan sayarwa, Manrique yayi kakkausar suka game da baiwar (wanda ya yi magana game da shi). Halin da ake magana da shi yana son ci gaba da sha kuma ya ba da aljihunsa a matsayin biyan kuɗi. Na uku, Abin da ya yi wa mahaifiyarsa, ya kunshi ayoyi 120, saboda haka, shi ne mafi nisan rubutu na wannan mai dogaro.

Coplas har zuwa mutuwar mahaifinsa

Coplas har zuwa mutuwar mahaifinsa.

Coplas har zuwa mutuwar mahaifinsa.

Kuna iya siyan littafin anan: Coplas har zuwa mutuwar mahaifinsa

Tushen

Ya kirkiresu ne a lokacin mutuwar mahaifinsa, Rodrigo Manrique, (wanda aka yiwa cutar kansa). Mawakin ya ci gaba da kasancewa tare da shi sosai, sakamakon haka, mutuwarsa ta haifar masa da mummunan tashin hankali. Duk zafin nasa labari ne na tatsuniyoyi ta hanyar ayoyin da suka cakuda al'ada da asali. Ya rubuta su "mai zafi", nan da nan bayan mutuwa.

A cikin waɗannan ayoyin an sadaukar da shi don yin cikakken cikakken bayani game da farkawa. Daidai, yana nuna mahaifinsa a cikin dukkan jarumtakarsa, a matsayinsa na mai kyawawan halaye kuma mai cike da ƙarfin zuciya. A can, an kusanci batun mutuwa daga janar zuwa ga ɗan adam. Bugunta ya faru shekaru bayan mutuwar Jorge Manrique kuma ya zama sanannen adabin Mutanen Espanya.

Estructura

Ya kasu kashi uku:

  • Na farko Ya kunshi baƙaƙe goma sha huɗu da aka rubuta azaman gabatarwar ɗabi'a. Tushenta ya fi falsafa a cikin sautin; ta kawo ƙimar ƙimar rayuwar duniya da ikon mutuwa na har abada.
  • A kashi na biyu akwai bawan goma sha biyar waɗanda aka keɓe don ɓacewa ta zahiri kwanan nan na mahimman mutane.
  • Tubalan na uku an sadaukar dashi don yabon rayuwar mahaifinsa —Wanda aka kwatanta shi da jarumin Kirista kuma jarumi— tuni manyan haruffan Roman.

A ƙarshe, Manrique ya fara tattaunawa da mutuwa. Baki daya, mawaƙin ya gudanar da wakiltar kasancewar ɗan adam mai mutuwa ta hanya mafi wucewa kuma zuwa rai madawwami tare da mafi ƙarancin alama.

Gutsure na Coplas har zuwa mutuwar mahaifinsa

III

«Rayuwarmu sune koguna
cewa za su bayar a cikin teku,
me ke mutuwa;
can tafi da manoma
haƙƙoƙin ƙarshe
e cinyewa;
can akwai koramu suna gudana
can sauran rabin
e mafi mutane,
dangi, iri daya suke
waɗanda suke rayuwa ta hannunsa
da attajirai.

V

«Wannan duniyar ita ce hanya
ga ɗayan, menene shunayya
ba tare da nadama ba;
Yanada kyau muyi hankali
yin tafiya yau
ba tare da kuskure ba.
Mun bar lokacin da aka haife mu,
muna tafiya yayin da muke raye,
kuma mun iso
a lokacin da muke mutuwa;
don haka idan muka mutu,
mun huta ".

The Triangle na Manrique

Wannan shiri ne wanda aka ƙaddamar a ƙarshen 1990s godiya ga mazaunan lardin Cuenca, a cikin Castilla-La Mancha. Haraji ne ga rayuwa da aikin Jorge Manrique ta hanyar hanyar yawon bude ido an tsara shi ne don bikin nasa da kuma nuna lokacin sa a waɗannan rukunin yanar gizon.

Musamman, Yawon shakatawa yana da tashoshi uku: Garcimuñoz Castle, garin Santa María del Campo-Rus da kuma garin Uclés. A cikin fadar da aka ambata a baya an ji masa rauni, a wuri na biyu ya mutu kuma a ƙarshen ƙarshe ya karɓi kabari mai tsarki.

Alamar hanyar "farfaɗowar waƙoƙi"

Jorge Manrique masana tarihi suna ɗaukar sa a matsayin wanda ya dace sosai da adabin Mutanen Espanya. Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya, saboda yanayinta, yana nuna daidaituwar Renaissance saboda rubutacciyar magana, tare da tawali'u, tawali'u da kuma yanayi. Inda lalata kawai ke zuwa don haskaka sauƙi da albarkatun magana irin na mawaƙan karni na XNUMX.


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