Jorge Guillen

Jumla daga Jorge Guillén.

Jumla daga Jorge Guillén.

Jorge Guillén Álvarez (Valladolid, 1893 - Málaga, 1984) ɗan mawaƙi ne na rationarnin 27 halin wani sabon yanayi mai kyau game da duniya. Wannan hangen nesa ya sanya shi abokan gaba tsakanin masu zane-zanen Mutanen Espanya da yawa waɗanda suka sha wahala bayan Yakin Basasa. A saboda wannan dalili, masana tarihi suna yawan kwatanta matsayinsa (sabanin) rashin kwazon waka na Aleixandre.

A gefe guda, ana daukar Guillén a matsayin marigayi mawaki - littafinsa na farko ya bayyana ne lokacin da yake shekara 35 - da kuma kai tsaye almajirin Juan Ramón Jiménez. Kafin fara wallafe-wallafensa, Ya yi aiki a matsayin mai zargi da haɗin gwiwa don mahimman mahimman mujallu na ilimi na lokacin a Spain. Tsakanin su, Spain, La Pluma, Fihirisar y Mujallar Yamma.

Tarihin Rayuwa

Jorge Guillén an haife shi ne a Valladolid, Janairu 13, 1893. Tun yarintarsa ​​ya halarci Colegio de San Gregorio har zuwa lokacin da ya koma Freiburg yana ɗan shekara 16 don yin karatun Faransanci. Daga baya, zauna a sanannen Mazaunin Madridaliban Madrid yayin karatun Falsafa da Haruffa a babban birnin Spain. Kodayake a ƙarshe an sami digirinsa a Jami'ar Granada.

Aure da ayyukan ilimi na farko

Tsakanin 1909 da 1911 ya zauna a Switzerland. Sannan, daga 1917 zuwa 1923 ya kasance mai karatun Sifen ne a La Soborna a Paris, inda ya fara rubuta baitukan sa na farko. Wannan lokaci ne na tafiye-tafiye da yawa; a cikin ɗayansu ya sadu da Germaine Cahen, wanda ya aura a 1921. Ma'auratan suna da yara biyu, Claudio da Teresa (Na farkon ya zama mai suka da ƙwarewa a cikin adabin kwatanta).

Jorge Guillén ya koma Spain a 1923. Shekarar mai zuwa Ya sami digirin digirgir kuma daga 1925 ya fara koyar da Adabin Mutanen Espanya a Jami'ar Murcia. Duk da wajibai na karatunsa, Guillén ya tafi tare da wasu abubuwan yau da kullun zuwa Residencia de los Estudiantes, inda ya yi abokai da adadi kamar Federico García Lorca da Rafael Alberti.

Matsayinku a cikin Zamanin 27

A cikin 1920s lokaci ne da Guillén ya fara aiki a cikin rafin "tsarkakakken shayari." Hankalin kirkire ne wanda ya kebanta da daidaitattun abubuwan da ke ciki da rashin kayan ado na zamani. Sakon ku na farko, Waƙa (1923), ya kunshi wakoki 75 da aka buga a Mujallar yamma.

Guillén ya ɗauki rubuce-rubucensa azaman ci gaba ne, don haka, Waƙa An buga shi a jere har zuwa 1950. Halinsa na maganganu na magana ya jinkirta fitowar Waƙa a cikin tsarin littafi har zuwa 1928. Wannan salon na ingantaccen waƙar mawaƙa kuma wasu abokan aiki sun amince da shi daga Zamanin 27. Daga ciki, Pedro Salinas, Vicente Aleixandre da Dámaso Alonso.

Kafin da bayan Yakin Basasa

Jorge Guillén ya kammala karatun digirin digirgir na biyu a Oxford tsakanin 1929 da 1931. Koma Spain Ya yi aiki a matsayin Farfesa na Adabi a Jami'ar Seville har zuwa barkewar yakin basasa a cikin 1936. Bayan fara yaƙin an ɗan kama shi a Pamplona, ​​sau ɗaya a kurkuku ya koma matsayinsa a Seville kuma ya fassara Ina raira waƙa ga shahidan Spain by Paul Claudel.

Canticle.

Canticle.

Kuna iya siyan littafin anan: Waƙa

An fassara wannan aikin azaman kusanci ne ga Falange na Spain kuma Guillén bai ɗauki dogon lokaci ba don nadama. Ala kulli hal, Ma'aikatar Ilimi ta hana shi rike mukaman ilimi ko na mulki. Saboda wannan, Guillén ya yanke shawarar yin hijira zuwa Amurka a cikin 1938.

Gudun hijira

A Arewacin Amurka, Guillén ya koma koyar da Adabi da Haruffa a Jami'o'in Middlebury, McGill (Montreal) da Kwalejin Wellesley. Ya kasance aiki ya katse sau uku. Da farko lokacin da ya zama bazawara a 1947. Sannan, a 1949 ya yi 'yan makonni a Malaga ya ziyarci mahaifinsa mara lafiya. A ƙarshe, ya yi ritaya a 1957 daga Kwalejin Wellesley kuma ya koma Italiya a 1958.

A can, a cikin Florence, ya haɗu da Irene Monchi-Sismondi, wanda ya aura a Bogotá a ranar 11 ga Oktoba, 1961. Jim kaɗan bayan haka, ya koma aiki koyar da kwasa-kwasan koyarwa a Jami’ar Harvard da Puerto Rico. Amma Faɗuwa tare da raunin ƙugu ya tilasta Jorge Guillén yin ritaya dindindin daga koyarwa a 1970.

Shekarun da suka gabata

A ƙarshen mulkin kama karya na Franco, marubucin Valladolid ya yanke shawarar komawa Spain, a lokacin zauna a Malaga daga 1975. Tun daga wannan lokacin har zuwa rasuwarsa (a ranar 6 ga Fabrairu, 1984), marubucin Valladolid ya sami ra'ayoyi da rabe-rabe da yawa. Daga cikin waɗannan, waɗannan masu zuwa suna fitowa:

  • Kyautar Farko ta Cervantes (1976).
  • Alfonso Reyes lambar yabo ta duniya (1977).
  • An kira shi memba mai daraja na Royal Academy of the Spanish Language (1978).
  • Sonan da aka fi so na Andalusia (1983).

Wakoki daga Jorge Guillen

"Loveaunar bacci"

Ka yi barci, ka miƙa hannunka da mamaki
Kin kewaye rashin bacci na Shin kayi nisa kamar haka
daren bacci, a karkashin watan ganima?
burinki ya lullube ni, nayi mafarkin na ji.

"Tekun mantuwa ne"

Ruwa ya mance,
waƙa, leɓe;
teku masoyi ne,
aminci amsa ga so.

Abu kamar dare
Ruwanta kuma gashinsa ne,
motsin rai wanda ya daukaka
ga taurari masu sanyi.

Abubuwan kulawarsa mafarkai ne
suna budewa ajikinsu,
suna iya samun wata,
sune mafi girman rayuwa.

Akan duwawun baya
raƙuman ruwa suna jin daɗi.

Halaye na aikin Jorge Guillén

Haraji.

Haraji.

Hazikancin waƙoƙin Guillén yana daga cikin farinciki koyaushe akan rawar rawar wanzuwar. Bugu da kari, ɗaukaka ce da aka bayyana ta ingantacciyar hanya, ta gargajiya, kuma an rubuta ta da ƙarfin tunani. Inda rashin kayan ado na waƙa ya samo asali ne daga tsattsauran tsari na kawarwa wanda ya ƙare da ƙirƙirar jimloli masu mahimmanci.

Saboda haka, a cikin aikin Guillén kowace kalma tana wakiltar ainihin mawaƙin. Inda ra'ayoyin suke juyawa game da jituwa ta cikakkiyar duniya har ma da abubuwa mafi sauƙi na rayuwar ɗan adam suna da matukar dacewa. Don cimma irin wannan matakin na karko - ba tare da rasa niyyar waka ba - mawaƙin Sifen ya yi amfani da salo bisa:

  • Yawan amfani da sunaye (kusan koyaushe ba tare da labarai ba), haka kuma kalmomin suna ba tare da aikatau ba. To, niyya ita ce sunaye suna nuni da yanayin abubuwa.
  • Amfani da jimla mai ma'ana koyaushe.
  • Mafi yawan amfani da ayoyin ƙaramin fasaha.

Tarihin ayyukansa

  • Waƙa (1928; wakoki 75).
  • Waƙa (1936; wakoki 125).
  • Waƙa (1945; wakoki 270).
  • Waƙa (1950; wakoki 334).
  • Orchard na Melibea (1954).
  • Na wayewar gari da wayewa (1956).
  • Kira: Maremagnun (1957).
  • Li'azaru wuri (1957).
  • .. cewa zasu bayar a cikin teku (1960).
  • Tarihin Halitta (1960).
  • Jarabawan Antonio (1962).
  • Dangane da awanni (1962).
  • A tsayi na yanayi (1963).
  • Haraji (1967).
  • Iskar mu: Canticle, Kuka, Haraji (1968).
  • Wungiyoyin jama'a (1970).
  • A gefe (1972)
  • Da sauran kasidu (1973).
  • Haɗin kai (1975).
  • karshe (1981).
  • Bayanan (1981).

Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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