Phillip Pullman's Kwallon Zinare

Gwanin Zinare.

Gwanin Zinare.

Gwanin Zinare (1995) ne taken farko a cikin jerin Duhu al'amari, wanda marubucin Ingilishi Phillip Pullman ya kirkira. An tsara shi a cikin nau'ikan adabin ban sha'awa, littafi ne mai haruffa masu zurfin gaske, ingantaccen bayani, wanda a ciki ne aka sami jigogi daban-daban na rayuwa. Babu wani abu a cikin wannan aikin da ke da baƙar fata ko fari kuma an kira lamirin mai karatu don yin hukunci da yanayin wasu al'amuran farko.

Gwanin Zinare —Sunan waye na asali Hasken Arewa- ya sami Pullman lambar 1995 ta Carnegie. Bugu da kari, wannan littafin ya zama babban fitacce kuma ya samu karbuwa daga masu sukar adabi. An kuma sanya taken a fim a shekarar 2007 da sunan Gwanin Zinare (The Golden Compass), a cikin fim mai fasali wanda Chris Weitz ya jagoranta tare da fitattun taurari a duniya kamar Dakota Blue Richards, Nicole Kidman da Daniel Craig, da sauransu.

Sobre el autor

An haifi Phillip Pullman a Norwich, Ingila, a ranar 19 ga Oktoba, 1946. Shi ɗa ne ga Audrey Merrifield da Alfred Outram. Wani bala'in dangi ya nuna ƙuruciyarsa, saboda mahaifinsa matukin jirgin RAF ne wanda ya mutu a cikin haɗarin jirgin sama. Ya kammala karatun digiri na Exeter College, Oxford (1968) kuma a halin yanzu yana aiki a Jami'ar Oxford. Babban tasirin sa ya fito ne daga adabin Ingilishi na gargajiya, daga hannun marubuta kamar John Milton ko William Blake.

An san shi a duniya don jerin jerin Duhu al'amari, wanda kundinsa sune: Hasken Arewa (1995), Dagger (1997), Gilashin leken asiri (2000), Lyra ta Oxford (2003) y Wani lokaci a arewa (2008). A baya wannan marubucin ya ƙirƙiri wani jerin da ake kira Littattafan Sally Lockhart. Wannan jerin an hada shi da La'anar rubi (1985), Sally da inuwar arewa (1986), Sally da damisa daga rijiyar (1990) y Sally da tin gimbiya (1994).

Pullman marubuci ne mai tsayi, littafinsa na farko, Hadarin hadari (Hadarin sihiri) daga 1972. Ya kuma wallafa wasu wasannin kwaikwayo, daga cikinsu akwai fitattu Frankenstein y Sherlock Holmes da Tsoron Gidan Lime (duka daga 1992). Hakanan ana lasafta labaran labaru da yawa tsakanin ayyukansa, kamar su Labarun bincike (1998) da kuma “Wodunnit?"(2007).

Pullman Har ila yau, ya shiga cikin duniyar labaru masu ma'ana tare da take kamar Labarin ban mamaki na Aladdin da kuma sihirin sihiri (1993) y A cat da takalma (2000). Littattafansa na kwanan nan sun hada da Kyakkyawan Yesu da Kristi, miyagu (2009), Criminalswararrun masu laifi biyu (2011) y Da kyau na daji (2017). Latterarshen shine farkon kashi na sabon jerin: Littafin duhu.

Philip Pullman ne adam wata.

Philip Pullman ne adam wata.

Daidaici Sararin Samaniya na Gwajin Gwal

Lipaunar Phillip Pullman ga John Milton ya bayyana a cikin Gwanin Zinare. Wannan sananne ne a cikin duniyar duniyar da aka gabatarwa mai karatu. A cikin wannan ruɗɗan ruhun mutane yana nuna sura ta zahiri, wacce aka rabu da ita daga jikin mutum da dabbar silhouette (daemons). Wani abin da ke cikin wannan duniyar shine ci gaban al'adu da fasaha: makamashin lantarki ana kiransa "ambaric" kuma ana kiran kimiyyar lissafi da "tauhidin gwaji".

A gefe guda, jigilar sama an yi ta da zeppelins da kuma balloons mai zafi. Ana kiran mafi girman hukumar gwamnati "Magisterium" kuma akwai masu iya magana da hankali beyar masu sulke (duk da cewa basa nuna daemon). Har ila yau, akwai mayu da za su iya rayuwa na ɗaruruwan shekaru da kuma wasu mutane makiyaya waɗanda ke rayuwa a kan jirgi (ba su da yawa a kowane wuri sai teku): "Gyptians".

Babban mahimmancin makircin shine imani da almara wanda yayi hasashen zuwan yarinyar da rawarta ke da mahimmanci a yakin da yake da wannan duniyar a cikin shakka. Bugu da ƙari, mummunan jita-jita ya bazu: satar yara maza da mata waɗanda aka kai su arewa don fuskantar su cikin mummunan gwaji. Wannan bangare na ƙarshe na labarin ya haifar da haramcin littafin a wasu ƙasashen Amurka, saboda yawancin mahaɗan iyayen sun ɗauke shi a matsayin “abin kunya” karatu ga ƙananan yara.

Ci gaban makirci da nazari

Wurin abubuwan da suka faru da abubuwan farko

Labarin yafi faruwa ne a Kwalejin Jordan, Oxford. Nan, Lyra Belacqua, fitacciyar jarumar, yarinya ce 'yar shekara goma sha ɗaya da ke cikin wani mawuyacin hali. Babu inda labarai marasa dadi ga mutane suka fara bayyana. Bugu da kari, Roger, babban aminin sa, ya bace lokacin da yake matukar bukatar sa, saboda yana da kasar gaba daya da shi kuma ya san cewa ana kallon sa a duk inda ya tafi.

Saboda haka, Duk da nuna kyakkyawar duniya, yawancin yanayin da Pullman ya ruwaito suna fuskantar mai karatu da batutuwan yanzu, kamar sirri da muguntar ɗan adam a cikin ƙarni na XXI. Hakanan, akwai matsala a kan batutuwan da suka wanzu kamar ilimin kai, kyauta da zurfin motsin mutum.

Raungiyoyin Lyra

Don cimma burinta, Lyra tana neman ƙawance a cikin halittu uku daban.: Sarafina, wata mayya ce mai matukar daɗin gaske wacce ke ɗauke da siffar uwa kuma tana taimaka wa jarumar ta gano manufarta a yaƙin da ke tafe; Lee Scoresby, mai tauraron yaƙi mai kaunar Texan tare da ɗumi da ɗabi'a ta irin matakan; da Lorek Byrnison, bare mai sulke wacce Lyra ta kulla wata alaka ta musamman, ta ba ta damar ma ta fi ta girma, karfi da kuma kwarin gwiwa.

Mahimmancin mata

Pullman kuma yana nuna sakon mata mai matukar karfi ta hanyar tunowa da yarinya duk kyawawan halaye da dabi'u. An bayyana Lyra a matsayin mutum mai mutunci tare da isasshen ƙarfin hali don adawa da ikon da Magisterium ke wakilta. Hakazalika, marubucin ya sauya fasalin da aka saba gani na jarumar jarumai mata wadanda dole ne a cece su.

Philip Pullman ya ambata.

A layi daya tare da Inquisition

Tsarin yana yin nuni kai tsaye game da Inquisition da kuma amfani da tsoro azaman kayan aiki biyu na sarrafa kan yawan jama'a. Har ila yau, akwai bayanan ƙarni na yau da kullun game da azzaluman. Da yawa daga cikin munanan halayen da aka bayyana suna da hujja a ƙarƙashin jigo "na gari gama gari" kuma tsarin ikon yana fuskantar Lyra ne kawai. Ita ce ta keta mutuncin mace na ɗabi'a ta hanyar fasa haramtattun abubuwan da ke takura mata.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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