Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos

Kalaman Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos.

Kalaman Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos.

Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos (1744-1811) marubuci ne na ɗan lokaci don haruffa Mutanen Espanya na XNUMX da farkon ƙarni na XNUMX. Ayyukansa sun kasance masanan shari'a ne da kuma alkali. Rubuce-rubucen "Jovino" - ɗayan sunayen laƙabinsa na fasaha - sun yi fice don ingantaccen noman yaren Spanish da adabin. Wannan ingancin yana bayyane sosai a cikin waƙinsa, ana ɗaukarsa cikin mafi kyawun lokacinsa.

Hakanan Jovellanos ya bambanta ta hanyar kyakkyawar ma'amala da sauran nau'o'in, musamman ta hanyar ƙwarewar sa da salon halittar sa. Haka kuma, ya haɓaka ingantaccen waƙar waka da izgili kamar yadda yake yin tsabtace kamar yadda yake watsawa. Ba a banza ba, aka ɗauki matsayinsa na ɗan siyasa mai wayewa. Saboda waɗannan dalilai, shi marubuci ne mai nauyin nauyi a cikin tarihin Siyasa da tarihin adabin Mutanen Espanya.

Tarihin Rayuwa

Haihuwa, yarinta, karatu da kuruciya

Baftisma Baltasar Melchor Gaspar María, an haife shi a Gijón, a ranar 5 ga Janairu, 1744. Iyalinsa masu daraja ne, kodayake ba su da wadata sosai. Tun yana ƙarami ya nuna horon abin yabawa ga ƙaramin yaro, kamar yadda ya dace da nauyin karatunsa da son rubutu. A wancan lokacin, ya kasance masamman tasirin tasirin wayewar kai.

Bayan ya cika shekaru 13 ya zauna a Oviedo domin karatun Falsafa a jami'ar garin. Bayan shekaru uku, skuma ya koma Ávila don kammala karatun sa a Cánones. Ya sami digiri daga Jami'ar Santa Catalina de El Burgo de Osma (1761). Ya karbi digiri a 1763 a Santo Tomás de Ávila University.

Ayyukan farko

Bayan ya kammala karatun cocin a Colegio Mayor de San Ildefonso na Jami'ar Alcalá (1764-1767), ya koma Seville. Can, an nada shi alkalin kotun Kotun Masarauta kuma a cikin 1774 an ba shi matsayin Magajin Garin Laifuka da Oidor na babban birnin Andalus. A shekara mai zuwa, Jovellanos ya yi aiki a matsayin sakataren zane-zane da kere-kere na Sociedad Patriótica Sevillana.

Hakanan, a cikin 1773 matashi Gaspar ya kammala rubutunsa na farko (mai ban mamaki) Mai gaskiya mai laifi (an buga shi 1787). A wannan lokacin, Jovellanos ya samar da sanannun ɓangarorin neoclassical, daga cikinsu Jovino ga abokansa a Salamanca y Zuwa ga abokanka a Seville. Na farko ya kasance mai halin ɗabi'a, na biyu ya kasance mai saurin fushi.

A cikin babban birni

Jovellanos ya iso Madrid a 1778. Yayin da yake can, ya shiga a matsayin memba na Majalisar Mayokan Majalisa da Kotu. A cikin shekaru masu zuwa an shigar da shi makarantar Kwalejin Tarihi ta Royal (1779), Royal Academy of San Fernando (1780) da Royal Spanish Academy (1781). A farkon farkon shekarun 1780s shima memba ne na Majalisar Dokokin Sojoji.

Bugu da kari, mai ilimi daga Gijón yana daya daga cikin masu tallata Banco de San Carlos (1782) da Sociedad Económica Matritense (1784). Daga cikin rubuce-rubucen da suka fi dacewa kan al'amuran kasuwanci na wancan lokacin shine Rahoton kan Dokar Agrarian. A cikin wannan, yana kare rationancin ƙasar kuma yana ba da shawarar sake fasalin aikin noma na Sifen.

Ofarshen zane mai zane

Juyin Juya Halin Faransa ya kawo ƙarshen ra'ayoyin wayewa da kuma ficewar Jovellanos daga Kotun. A dalilin haka ne marubucin ya koma kasarsa, inda ya rubuta a Nuna rahoto don Royal Academy of Tarihi. Farawa daga 1790, ya zagaya Asturias, Cantabria da Basque Country don nazarin yanayin ma'adinan kwal. Arshensa ya kasance mai dacewa don haɓaka samarwa.

Daga baya, a karkashin gwamnatin ƙawancen Manuel Godoy da Faransa mai neman sauyi, Jovellanos ya amince ya zama Ministan Alheri da Adalci. Kodayake ya kasance cikin matsayin ne kawai fiye da shekara guda (1797), amma ya bar alamar sa saboda niyyar kawo canji. Hakanan, ya yi tsayayya da Inquisition da mafificiyar cocin.

Gudun hijira

Bayan ɗan gajeren zama a Gijón a matsayin Kansilan Jiha, a cikin 1800 Godoy ya ba da umarnin kama shi da kora zuwa Mallorca. Dalilin: An tuhumi Jovellanos da gabatarwa a Spain kwafin littafin da aka hana, Yarjejeniyar zamantakewa, na Rousseau. Bugu da ƙari, haɓakar al'adun gargajiyar gargajiyar gargajiyar gargajiyar a wancan lokacin ta shafi marubucin Asturiyan sosai.

Yarjejeniyar-koyarwa koyarwa yarjejeniya.

Yarjejeniyar-koyarwa koyarwa yarjejeniya.

Kuna iya siyan littafin anan: Yarjejeniyar-koyarwa koyarwa yarjejeniya

A tsibirin Bahar Rum ya yi bayani dalla-dalla Waƙwalwar ajiya akan ilimin jama'a (1802). Haka nan, yayin da aka tsare shi a cikin Bellver Castle, ya rubuta Tunawa da tarihi game da gidan Bellver (buga post gawa) da kuma Takardun koyarwa mai amfani game da koyarwa (1802). A ƙarshe, an sake shi shekaru uku kafin rasuwarsa, wanda ya faru a ranar 27 ga Nuwamba, 1811. Yana da shekara 67.

Legacy

Jovellanos shi ne marubucin yawan hukunce-hukunce, takunkumi da rahotanni game da yanayin doka ga Majalisar koli ta Castile. Hakanan, ingancin salo da yawa a bayyane yake yayin nazarin yalwar iliminsa a fannoni kamar tattalin arziki, tarihi, ilimin koyarwa, ilimin ƙasa da fasaha. Ba abin mamaki bane, rubutaccen aikinsa ya shafi wallafe-wallafe sama da hamsin.

Kari kan haka, ya nuna matukar muhimmanci game da tsarin ilimin kungiyoyin mutane. To, hangen nesa na marubucin Gijón koyaushe ana rarrabe shi ta hanyar cikakkiyar hanya zuwa kowane yanki ko abin binciken, wanda aka tsara cikin ingantacciyar hanya mai kyau. A saboda wannan dalili, ana ɗaukar Jovellanos a matsayin mai tsinkaye na fannoni daban-daban na kimiyya da aka haɓaka yayin ƙarni na XNUMX.

Ayyukansa sanannu

Gidan wasan kwaikwayo

  • Pelayo / Munuza, bala'i (1769).
  • Mai gaskiya mai laifi (1774).

Wakokin waka da soyayya

  • Yabon jana'iza na Marquis de los Llanos de Alguazas (1780).
  • Cikin Yabo na Carlos III (1788).

Diary da Memori

  • Diario (1790 - 1801).
  • Tunawa da iyali (1790-1810).
  • Jaridar tafiya daga Bellver (Mallorca) zuwa Jadraque (Guadalajara). Dawowa daga gudun hijira (1808).

ilimi

  • Rahoto ga Protomedicato game da jihar Seville Medical Society da kuma nazarin Magunguna a Jami'ar ta (1777).
  • Dokar da ta shafi tattalin arziƙi, tsarin mulki da kuma adabi na Kwalejin Kwarewar Tsinkayen Salamanca, bisa ga sabon shirin da Mai Martaba ya amince da shi tare da tuntuɓar Royal Council of Orders (1790).
  • Memori na Ilmantarwa. (1790-1809).
  • Dokar don Royal Asturian Institute (1793).
  • Addu'a akan buƙatar haɗakar karatun adabi zuwa na kimiyya (1797).
  • Shirya don tsara karatun Jami'ar (1798).
  • Tsarin ilimi don martaba da azuzuwan attajirai (1798).
  • Memwaƙwalwar ajiya akan ilimin jama'a ko ka'idoji-aikace-aikace kan koyarwa tare da aikace-aikace zuwa makarantu da kwalejojin yara (1802).
  • Matsakaici don ƙirƙirar babban tsarin koyar da Jama'a (1809).

Tattalin arziki

  • Abubuwan da ke haifar da koma baya na Soungiyoyin Tattalin Arziƙi (1786).
  • Rahoto a cikin Fayil na Dokar Agrarian (1794).
  • Rahoton kan hakar mai zuwa masarautun kasashen waje. (1774).
  • Rahoton kan ci gaban jirgin ruwan mai fatauci (1784).
  • Rahoton kan Sauya Sabuwar Hanyar don inirƙirar siliki (1789).

Arte

  • Tsarin ingantawa gabaɗaya da aka gabatarwa ga Gijón City Council (1782).
  • Rahoto ga Babban Kwamitin Kasuwanci da Kuɗi game da aikin wasan kwaikwayo na kyauta (1785).
  • Bellver castle memory, tarihin-zane-zane (1805).

Siyasa

  • Wakilin farko ga Carlos IV (1801).
  • Wakili na biyu ga Carlos IV (1802).
  • Wakilcin Fernando VII (1808).
  • Orywaƙwalwar ajiya a cikin tsaro na kwamitin tsakiya (1811).

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