Ee na 'yan mata

Leandro Fernández de Moratin.

Leandro Fernández de Moratin.

Ee na 'yan mata Wannan shine mafi mahimmancin wasan kwaikwayo na wasan kwaikwayo na Spanish neoclassicism. Sabili da haka, yana wakiltar mafi girman fa'ida a kan allon dukkanin yankin tsibirin Iberia a cikin ƙarni na 24. An fara kirkirar wannan yanki ne a ranar 1806 ga Janairu, 37.000 a Madrid. Gabaɗaya, lissafi ya kimanta halartar wasu yan kallo XNUMX cikin tsawon makonni bakwai ba fasawa a gidan wasan kwaikwayo na La Cruz.

Tare da rawar gani a ofis, taken ya zama sabon edita. Da yawa sosai shekara guda kafin fitowarta, aƙalla bugu biyu sun riga sun fara gudana. Hakanan, a cikin 1806 an buga ƙarin juzu'i da yawa. duka a cikin Spain da cikin ƙasashe kamar Faransa da Italiya. Wannan ya baiwa kamfanoni da dama damar ciyar da nasu majalisun. A zahiri, an ma yi ba tare da sanar da marubucin ba.

Leandro Fernández de Moratín: gwanin birgewa

Leandro Fernández de Moratin Ya kasance ɗayan shahararrun marubutan wasan Sifen na ƙarni da suka gabata kuma ɗan adon da ke cikin Hasken Castilian. An haife shi a Madrid a ranar 10 ga Maris, 1760, a cikin dangi masu daraja daga Asturias. Menene ƙari, mahaifinsa shi ne mawaki Nicolás Fernández de Moratín. Wannan ya wakilci abin motsa jiki don shiga duniyar haruffa.

Yayin yarinta da samartaka, Yanayin rashin lafiyar Leandro ya sanya shi jin kunya sosai kuma ya janye. Saboda wannan dalili, littattafan suka zama mafakarsa kuma tagarsa don sanin duniya. Daga ƙarshe, nasa rubuce-rubucen ya zama hanyar nunawa da yin bikin kasancewarsa ga duniya.

Marubucin wasan kwaikwayo na neoclassicism na Spain

Fitaccen mawaƙi kuma marubucin tafiye-tafiye, Fernández de Moratín ya sami hanyar da ya fi so ta bayyana a cikin wasan kwaikwayo. Marubucin ya zaɓi wasan barkwanci, wanda ya dace da wannan lokacin. Kuma haka ne, muna magana game da lokutan kusa tare da ƙarshen ƙarshen Zamanin Zinaren Mutanen Espanya. Bugu da ƙari, zamanin gargajiya ya cika filin da (mafi yawa) abubuwa masu ban mamaki.

Humor a matsayin hanya mai nunawa

Godiya ga asalinsa da azamarsa, ɗan wasan kwaikwayo na Madrid ya shiga cikin tarihi a matsayin marubucin mafi wakilcin wakilai daga ƙarshen XNUMX da farkon ƙarni na XNUMX. Haka kuma, ya kuskura ya fada game da mahimmancin sanya jama'a suyi tunani ta hanyar dariya.

A gefe guda kuma, Fernández de Moratín ya nuna fifiko ga ayyukan sauƙi da na yau da kullun. Saboda - a ra'ayinsu - fiye da nishaɗi da nishaɗi, suna barin darussa don nazari da koya. Kamar yawancin marubutan wasan kwaikwayo na zamanin da, ya fahimci gidan wasan kwaikwayon a matsayin zane tare da aikin ilimi da tarbiyya.

Sauƙi a kan mataki

Marubucin wasan kwaikwayo yayi amfani da wasan kwaikwayo na wasan kwaikwayo na ƙwarewa game da wayewa: sauki da haɗin kai, sama da duka. Inda diegesis da wucewar sa'o'in "ainihin" suka yi kama, a cikin takamaiman lokaci. Sabili da haka, ellipsis ko tazara yana faruwa yayin canjin yanayi.

Wato, duk ayyukan suna faruwa a sarari ɗaya. Tattaunawa da ayyuka sun haɗu da saiti da tasirin musamman. Can, halayenta suna amsawa (ko neman amsawa) ga ƙirar hankali. Saboda haka, duk wata hanya ta camfi (wanda ya yi daidai da jahilci ga marubucin) ko kuma addini gaba ɗaya an yi watsi da shi.

Ee na 'yan mata, Aiki mai rikitarwa gabanin lokacinsa

Ee na 'yan mata.

Ee na 'yan mata.

Kuna iya siyan littafin anan: Ee na 'yan mata

Duk siffofin salon da aka bayyana a cikin sakin layi biyu da suka gabata ana kiyaye su a ciki Ee na 'yan mata. A cikin rikice-rikice, wani ɓangare na ƙauyuka masu ra'ayin mazan jiya na al'ummar Madrid sun nuna rashin jin daɗi game da ra'ayoyin da haruffa suka gabatar wannan yanki. Kodayake, lokacin da aka sake shi babu sarki a Spain ko lokaci don ƙididdige aikin da ya gamsar da talakawa.

Haramtawa

A cikin 1815 sojojin Napoleon da suka mamaye sun ci nasara kuma Ferdinand VII ya sake dawowa kan karagarsa. Bayan haka, binciken ya kafa idanunsa kan rubutun Fernández de Moratín. Sakamakon: ban na mafi yawan alamunta: Ee na 'yan mata y A prude. Dukansu, duk da rashin adawa da koyarwar Katolika a fili, sunyi tambaya akan ikon dangi akan samari.

Soyayyar gaskiya

Musamman, Ee na 'yan mata yi magana game da al'adar aurar da 'yan mata ga mazan maza, wadatar bukatun tattalin arziki. An soki wannan matsalar tsakanin layukan kuma an soki lamirin yawan ƙungiyoyin da ba sa farin ciki da auren da ba shi da kyau. Hakanan rashin zuriya saboda suna maza ne ba tare da ikon iya haifuwa ba.

Loveauna ta gaskiya, gwargwadon hanyar tunani game da dangin gargajiya da aka zana a cikin makircin, ba komai ba ne face maganar banza. A wasu kalmomin, bautar banza da rashin tasirin yarinta a cikin ainihin duniyar. Don ƙarin inri - ɓangaren cocin -, Fernández de Moratín ya nuna limaman a matsayin abokan haɗin kai a cikin wannan ɓarna.

Makircin

Don Diego wani attajiri ne dan shekaru 59 da haihuwa wanda ya kamu da soyayya da Doña Francisca, budurwa maɓuɓɓugai 17 kawai.. A cikin tsakiyar tashin hankali, ya roki mahaifiyar yarinyar, Doña Irene, da ta ba shi damar auren 'yarta. Wannan shawarar tana da kyau a gareshi magidanci, bazawara mai aure uku tare da janaba kuma 21 an zubar da ciki.

A bayyane yake, a wancan lokacin irin wadannan aure na nufin tabbatar da makomar dangi gaba daya. Amma Doña Francisca tana soyayya da wani mutum: Don Carlos (dan uwan ​​angon nata). Koyaya, ita ko ƙaunarta ba ta da ƙarfin yin abin da dattawan suka so. Dangane da haka, sun yi murabus don ci gaba da rayuwarsu da aka ƙaddara don baƙin ciki da wahala.

Ee na 'yan mata: nasarar soyayya da hankali

Kalmomin daga Leandro Fernández de Moratín.

Kalmomin daga Leandro Fernández de Moratín.

An rubuta shi a rubuce kuma tare da gajerun maganganun tattaunawa - ban da wasu dogon bayani da suka dace - aikin ya bar kyawawan halaye masu kyau. Yana nuna: Lokacin da hankali ya fi rinjaye akan so, ana tabbatar da farin ciki ga duk wanda ke ciki. Ko da ta hanyoyin da ba a tsammani ba.

Bisa ga wannan jigon, sakamakon ƙarshe ya ba da damar nasarar soyayya a cikin mafi kyawun salon tatsuniyoyi "… Kuma sun rayu cikin farin ciki har abada". Kodayake Fernández de Moratín ya bayyana cewa don cimma waɗannan ƙudurorin "ƙwararru", ya zama dole a yi tunani da hankali ba da zuciya ba.


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  1.   Gustavo Woltmann ne adam wata m

    Yana da kyau sosai, kuma ɗabi'un da suka zana a ƙarshen Allah ne kawai. Rubutawa game da waɗannan batutuwan a cikin wannan karnin yana nufin ƙarfin ƙarfin da ba za a iya aunawa ba, marubucin ya sami haɗarin ƙarancin kutsawa, kuma mafi yawan kisa ko azabtarwa. Labari mai kyau.
    - Gustavo Woltmann.