Dabarar Seville

Tirso de Molina

Tirso de Molina

Dabarar Seville da Bakon Dutse Wannan ɗayan ɗayan wasan kwaikwayo ne na alama na Zamanin Zinaren Mutanen Espanya. An buga shi asali a 1630 kuma an danganta shi ga Tirso de Molina. Koyaya, wani mahimmin yanki na masu sukar lamiri da masana tarihi na rubutun baroque ya nuna Andrés de Claramonte a matsayin marubucin gaskiya.

Rarraba rikice-rikice game da marubuta, Don Juan, fitaccen jarumin wannan wasan kwaikwayo na rikice-rikice, shine mafi kyawun halin duniya a cikin duk adabin Castilian. Kwatanta kawai da manyan sunaye (daga sauran lattoci) na girman Romeo da Juliet, Oedipus, Achilles ko Sherlock Holmes.

Marubucin?

Kamar yadda aka ambata a sakin layi na farko, Babu daidaitattun ka'idoji idan yazo da gano marubucin Dabarar Seville da Bakon Dutse. Duk da yake babu hujjoji da yawa da za su karyata Tirso de Molina a matsayin wanda ya tsara. A zahiri, sunansa na ainihi shine Fray Gabriel Téllez, kodayake, a bayyane yake, an fi saninsa da sunan ɓacin sunansa.

Tirso de Molina

Ya kasance mai addini na Sifen, wanda ke cikin Dokar Sarauta da Soja na Uwargidanmu na Rahama da fansar waɗanda aka kama. An haife shi a Madrid a ranar 24 ga Maris, 1579; Ba a bayyana ranar mutuwarsa sosai ba. Dangane da wannan, yawancin masu ilimin kimiyya sun dace a watan Fabrairu 1648 azaman lokacin yiwuwar mutuwa.

Mutuwar Téllez za ta faru ne a Almazán, wata karamar hukuma wacce a yau ta kasance ɓangare na ƙungiyar masu zaman kansu ta Castilla y León. Abin da ba za a iya musantawa ba shi ne gadonsa, tun da aikinsa mai ban mamaki ya ci gaba da aiki har zuwa yau. Banda Dabarar Seville da Bakon Dutse, an jingina shi Don Gil na kayan lefen kore da kuma hagiographic trilogy na Santa Juana.

Bayyanar da comedies da autos sacramentales

Rubutun Tirso de Molina sun cika aikin kirki. Wato, marubucin ya kasance mai aminci ga lokacin tarihin da ya rayu, da kuma aikin addini. Saboda haka, fasali ne wanda ba'a manta dashi ba Dabarar Seville da Bakon Dutse.

Bayan hayaniya da dariya, a karshen babu wata tserewa daga azabar Allah. Hatta shi kansa jarumin yana sane da hakan (duk da cewa a karshe zai iya tuba daga zunubansa, amma ba shi da kubuta) Dangane da wannan, a daya daga cikin maganganun nasa ya tabbatar da cewa: "babu wani ajalin da ba a cika ba ko bashi da ba a biya ba."

Andrés de Claramonte: marubucin "sauran"

Andrés de Claramonte y Monroy shahararren ɗan wasan Sifen ne kuma marubucin wasan kwaikwayo, ɗan zamani na Tirso de Molina. An haife shi a Murcia kusan 1560, ya mutu a Madrid a ranar 19 ga Satumba, 1626. Akwai ra'ayoyi daban-daban guda biyu tsakanin waɗanda suka nuna shi a matsayin mai kirkirar Don Juan.

A gefe guda, marubucin Dabarar Seville da Bakon Dutse. A gefe guda, sauran masana tarihi - kodayake ba su yi jayayya da marubutan Molina na wannan aikin ba - sun tabbatar da cewa ya dogara ne akan Don haka har yaushe ka amince da ni. Wannan karshen wasan kwaikwayo ne da aka rubuta tsakanin 1612 da 1615, wanda aka danganta shi ga Claramonte.

Weft cike da tangles

A lokaci guda, wasu masana tarihi suna nuna Lope de Vega a matsayin mai kirkirar gaskiya Don haka har yaushe ka amince da ni. Saboda haka, batun marubucin Dabarar Seville da Bakon Dutse Tangle ne wanda ya cancanci izgili ga duk waɗannan marubutan. Sakamakon haka - mai yiwuwa - ba za a taɓa samun yarjejeniya ɗaya ba ta ƙarshe da za ta gamsar da dukkan ra'ayoyi.

Takaitawa na Dabarar Seville da Bakon Dutse

Dabarar Seville.

Dabarar Seville.

Kuna iya siyan littafin anan: Dabarar Seville

Wasan ya fara da Don Juan Tenorio, wani basarake ɗan Spain wanda, yayin da yake Naples, ya yaudari Duchess Isabel. Bayan an gano shi - kuma bayan jerin lamuran— sarki ya ba da umarnin a kamo shi, aka ba da amintacciyar wakiliya ga Don Pedro Tenorio, jakadan Spain a masarautar.

Amma jami'in diflomasiyyar Iberiya ba shi da koma baya mai dacewa: wanda ke da alhakin rashin mutuncin matar da Duke Octavian ya aura dan uwansa ne. Bayan yayi tunani akai, sai ya bari ya zame. Daga baya ya yi jayayya cewa ba zai iya yin komai ba game da damar da saurayin ya yi daga tsalle daga ɗakin da ya sami nasarar kusurwa da shi zuwa lambun gidan sarauta.

Koma Spain

Don Juan, tare da bawansa Catalinón - Mawallafin da ke aiki a matsayin “muryar lamiri,” kodayake ba a saurari shawararsa ba- wani bangare zuwa Seville. Amma kafin ya shiga Guadalquivir delta, jirgin shi ya lalace a gabar tekun Tarragona.

Daga hatsarin Tisbea, wata mata masunta ce ta ceto shi. Da zarar Don Juan ya murmure, ya yi nasarar yaudarar mai cetonsa. Sakamakon haka, masunta na ƙauyen sun fusata kuma suna shirin hukunta wannan izgili. Koyaya, mai wahala Don Juan ya sake tserewa, ba tare da fara ɗaukar mares biyu da wanda aka yiwa rashin mutuncin kansa ba.

Farko na farko a Seville

Da isowarsa Seville, Sarki Alfonso XI ya aika a kirawo shi. Masarautar ta san da ɗabi'ar rashin ɗabi'a a ƙasashen waje. Ya kuduri aniyar shawo kan matsalar diflomasiyya da ta faru. A dalilin wannan, ya tilasta mai laifin ya auri yarinyar da aka yi baƙin ciki.

Amma kafin a fahimci ainihin buri, Don Juan ya yaudare wata sabuwar baiwar: Doña Ana de Ulloa. Mahaifinta, lokacin da ya gano laifin, ya kalubalanci mutumin da ke da alhakin ɓata sunan danginsa zuwa duel. Bayan haka, dole ne mai gabatar da shirin ya sake yin sabon tserewa bayan kawo karshen rayuwar mai kalubalantarsa.

Darasi na karshe

Nisa da babban birnin Andalusia, ba'a da ba'a yiwa Don Juan Tenorio ba. Bayan ya dawo Seville, dole ne ya sake fuskantar Don Gonzalo de Ulloa. Marigayin, yanzu ya zama mutum-mutumi, yana gayyatar wanda ya kashe shi cin abincin dare. A wannan lokacin, Don Juan ya sami hukuncin da Allah ya cancanta.

Kalmomin tirso de Molina.

Kalmomin tirso de Molina.

A ƙarshe, baƙon dutse ya ja shi zuwa jahannama, ba tare da jituwa ba kuma ba tare da ba shi lokaci ba har ma ya nemi gafarar Allah.. Ta wannan hanyar, duk budurwowin da suka kara tsanantawa saboda ayyukan son kai da rashin bin ka'idoji, sun dawo da martabarsu.

A classic bayan adabi

Don Juan hali ne tare da wakilci da yawa da daidaitawa cikin tarihi. Marubuta kamar Moliere, Pushkin, Jorge Zorrilla ko Alexandre Dumas, tsakanin wasu da yawa, sun kasance masu kula da bayar da gudummawa ga ci gaban duniya. Don Giovanni, shahararriyar opera ta Mozart tare da kayan kwalliya ta Lorenzo da Ponte, shima ɓangare ne na wannan “rukunin”.

A wajen adabi, Don Juan (mai kama da Oedipus) yana da "ciwo". Hali ne na tilasta lalata wanda aka danganta ga maza da mata marasa ƙoshin lafiya. Saboda haka, "Don Juan" alama ce ta gaskiya ta al'adun duniya, wanda bita zai ci gaba muddin bil'adama ya kasance jinsin halittu masu mulki a doron Earthasa.


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