Charles bukowski

Charles Bukowski ya faɗi.

Charles Bukowski ya faɗi.

Henry Charles Bukowski, Jr. wani fitaccen marubuci Ba'amurke ne kuma Ba'amurke wanda ya gina suna don binciken sa na "mara kyau mara kyau" gefen Amurka. Musamman, galibin gajerun labarai, wakoki, da litattafai suna bayanin rayuwar yau da kullun na azuzuwan marasa ƙarfi a cikin Los Angeles.

ma, Gajerun rubuce-rubucen almara na Bukowski suna nuna tsananin shakuwa da shaye-shaye da halaye marasa kyau na zamantakewa. A cikinsu ya yi amfani da yare kai tsaye da kuma magana game da izgili - izgili da kowane irin tsari na ilimi - domin ya nuna rashin dacewar aikinsa. Wannan shine dalilin da yasa ya sami rashin jituwa ta kyakkyawan ɓangaren sukar adabin Amurka.

Rayuwar Charles Bukowski

An haifi Heinrich Karl Bukowski a Andernach, Jamus, a ranar 16 ga Agusta, 1920. Iyalinsa sun ƙaura zuwa Los Angeles lokacin yana ɗan shekara biyu. Ya kasance cikin ƙuruciya mai wahala, kamar yadda mahaifinsa ya kasance yana cutar da shi ta zahiri da kuma ta hankali. Kari akan haka, saboda lafazin Jamusanci, wasu yara sun kasance abin ba'a da shi. Sun kasance suna kiransa "Heini" (gajere don sunansa).

Farkon doguwar tarayya da giya

Bayan ya kai ga samartaka, Heinrich ya sha fama da cututtukan fata, wanda ya haifar da ƙi da 'yan mata a makarantarsa. Saboda wadannan dalilai, Ba abin mamaki bane cewa yana da shekaru 13 saurayi Bukowski ya fara warkar da baƙin cikin sa da giya. Wannan al'ada ta zama "al'adarsa" ta rubutu. A cikin kalmomin marubucin da kansa, ya ce: "Ya kasance sihiri, kamar kashe kanku da sake haifuwa kowace rana."

Mugayen abubuwan da suka faru a cikin shekaru ashirin na farkon rayuwar Bukowski sun ƙirƙira keɓaɓɓen hoto da ƙasƙantar da kansa. Bayan ya kwashe dogon lokaci a asibitoci don magance cutar da ta barke, ya kammala rubutun sa na farko a shekarar 1935. Wannan labarin ya ta'allaka ne da matukin jirgin Baron Manfred Von Richthofen, na Yaƙin Duniya na Farko.

Karatu da ayyukan farko

Bayan ya wuce makarantar sakandare a makarantar sakandare ta Los Angeles, Bukowski ya dauki kwasa-kwasan adabi da aikin jarida a kwalejin City ta Los Angeles tsakanin 1937 da 1939. A farkon yakin duniya na biyu, ya koma New York. Ya ɗauki mafarkinsa na zama marubuci tare da shi kuma ya fara yin ƙananan ƙananan ayyuka. Shekarun da suka biyo baya sun kasance cikin tafiya, sha da rubutu a cikin "ƙyamar adabi."

A 1944 an tsare shi a Philadelphia na tsawon kwanaki 17. Hukumar FBI ta zarge shi da kaucewa zaban sojojin Amurka. Koyaya, daga baya aka ayyana shi bai cancanci shiga aikin soja ba saboda dalilai na hankali. A waccan shekarar ya sanya littafinsa na farko a cikin mujallar Labari, gajeren labari «Bayan Lalacewar jectionarya Dogo»(Bayan An mi Amincewa da Sawancin Zamewa).

Koma zuwa California

A shekarar 1946, ya fitar da wani gajeren labari da hannun Black rana latsa, "20 Godiya ga Kasseldown”. Jimawa bayan, Bukowski ya koma Los Angeles, yana mai cike da takaici game da ƙaramar ci gaban sa a matsayin marubuci, don haka fara lokacin "shekaru 10 na shaye-shaye". A wannan matakin bai buga ba, amma ya ci gaba da canza canjin da ya yi amfani da shi a cikin labaran tatsuniyoyi masu yawa na gaba: Henry Chinaski.

Wadannan matani sun hada da Ayyuka, Hawan jini, Nuni da Janar Tatsuniyoyi na Babban Hauka (1972). A cikinsu ya bayyana karara - a cewar wasu muryoyi masu mahimmanci - tsarin misogynistic. Bukowski kawai ya daina shan barasa ne a cikin 1955 saboda cutar gyambon ciki, wanda ya fassara a matsayin alama ta komawa rubutu. Har zuwa mafi girma, ya sadaukar da kansa ga shayari.

Aure da tashin aikinsa na adabi

Tsakanin 1955 da 1958 ya auri Barbara Frye, wanda ta zauna tare da shi a wani ƙaramin gari a Texas. Bayan kisan aure, Charles ya koma shaye-shaye a California kuma ya ci gaba da rubuta waƙoƙi. Ya ce rubuce-rubucen da aka faɗi sun fara bugawa a ƙarshen shekarun 1950 a kafofin watsa labarai kamar na al'ada (wata majallar zane-zane ta gaba-garde), Gidan Jarida Mai Ji o The mai zuwa na baya, da sauransu.

Tabbatarwar Bukowski ta zo a cikin 1969 saboda alaƙarsa da John Martin, almara edita Bakin Bakin Baƙin. A sakamakon haka, Charles ya iya sadaukar da kansa na cikakken lokaci ga wasiƙu kuma ya yi ba tare da ayyukan sakandare ba - a gidan waya, galibi - don tallafa wa kansa. Koyaya, sanannen sanannen ya samu ne a Turai, ba a ƙasashen Arewacin Amurka ba.

Matan a cikin rayuwar Bukowski

Bukowski ya zauna tare da Frances Smith a cikin ƙwarƙwara tare a farkon rabin shekarun 60, wanda tare yake da diya (1964), Marina Louise Bukowski. A waccan shekarar ya kuma ƙaddamar da wani sabon salon waƙoƙin ƙarami a cikin lithographs da ƙasidu masu taken “Akwatin gawa 1". Karamin tsari ne wanda ya hada shahararrun wakoki kamar su “Takarda akan Bene"Kuma"vata Kwando", a tsakanin wasu.

A ƙarshen dangantakarta da Smith, ta kasance cikin alaƙar soyayya da yawa. Daga cikin su, wanda yake da shi tare da Linda King, mawaƙi da sassaka. Wadancan kasuwanci sun ciyar da guntun labarai, gajerun labaru da wakoki waɗanda Bukowski ya bayyana tsakanin shekarun 60 zuwa 70. Daidai saboda waɗannan rubuce-rubucen, an sanya marubucin Ba-Ba-Amurke da sunan "mai lalata".

Shekarun da suka gabata

Zuwa ƙarshen 1970s, Bukowski ya sami kyakkyawar suna a cikin ƙasarsa ta Jamus. Daga baya, A lokacin 80s, marubucin Arewacin Amurka ya nuna ƙwarewar fasaha ta hanyar haɗin gwiwa tare da bayyana abubuwan ban dariya. Mata mafi mahimmanci a ƙarshen matakin rayuwar Bukowski sune Amber O'Neil (aka) da Linda Lee Beighle, waɗanda ya aura a 1985.

Ululli daga Charles Bukowski.

Ululli daga Charles Bukowski.

Kuna iya siyan littafin anan: ɓangaren litattafan almara

A 1986, mujallar Times ya kira shi "Ba'amurken da ya ci lambar duniya." A duk lokacin da yake harkar rubutu ya rubuta littattafai shida. Na shida -ɓangaren litattafan almara- an buga shi jim kaɗan kafin rasuwarsa a ranar 9 ga Maris, 1994, a San Pedro, California.

Aikin Bukowski

Tasiri da kuma gado

Charles Bukowski ya bayyana hakan akai-akai manyan tasirin adabinsa shi ne: John Fante, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Ernest Hemingway, Louis-Ferdinand Céline, Knut Hamsun, Robinson Jeffers, DH Lawrence, Henry Miller, Du Fu, da Li Bai. Hakazalika, mahimmancinsa a cikin sanannun al'adun Amurka ba za'a musanta ba.

Ba abin mamaki bane, ana ambaton siffofin Bukowski da aikinsa a cikin maganganun fasaha daban-daban (sinima, wasan kwaikwayo, kiɗa ...). Misali, makada kida Red Hot barkono barkono, Fall Out Boy y Birin Arctic. Hakazalika, Littafin littafin Bukowski Ham a kan Rye an sanya shi fim a ƙarƙashin jagorancin James Franco a cikin 2013.

Fasali na waƙar Bukowski

Bukowski yayi amfani da mai ba da labari na mutum tare da hangen nesa a cikin wakokinsa. Daidai, rubuce-rubucensa misali ne na yau da kullun na salon zamani, ma'ana, tsari ba tare da ƙayyadaddun ma'auni ko waƙoƙi ba, ba tare da misalai ba. Yanzu, a cikin waƙoƙi da yawa ya yi amfani da ishara. Kari kan haka, ya yi amfani da kamanceceniya da, hakika, lafazi mai tsauri da munanan kalamai, irin na "karkashin kasa"

Wadannan halaye suna fa'ida a layi na gaba na waka "doki dala 350 da karuwanci dala dari”(Wanda aka fassara zuwa“ doki $ 350 da karuwa $ XNUMX): «kun duba kuma kun gani kuma kun duba kuma ba za ku iya gaskata shi ba”… (“ Kun duba kuma kun duba kuma kun duba kuma ba za ku iya gaskata shi ba) ”. Bugu da ƙari, Bukowski ya yi amfani da wadatar waɗannan albarkatun da aka ambata a ƙasa:

  • Ironies.
  • Saitunan rashin imani ko na wahala.
  • Amfani da jarumai da masu adawa (ko musanya manyan haruffa). Misali, a cikin waka mai taken "Game da Abokina Mai Azabtarwa Peter", mai adawa da shi Peter ne kuma jarumin shine mai ba da labarin.
  • Rikice-rikice masu rikitarwa. Wannan ya bayyana a cikin waƙar da aka ambata a baya, a cikin abin da Bitrus yake so ya sami rayuwa mai sauƙi a matsayin marubuci. Amma mai ba da labarin ya bayyana a sarari cewa abu ne mai wuya a samu duka (rayuwa daga rubutu da kuma walwala).
  • Gabatarwa ko shaidu daga inuwa. A cikin waƙoƙinsa, masu ba da labari da haruffa sun saba da ƙazantar yanayin mawuyacin yanayi da wahala.
  • A cikin waka "doki dala 350 da karuwanci dala dari”Dan rahoton ya fayyace cewa shi ba mawaki ba ne. Daga qarshe, yakan canza magana bayan ya kwana da mace, lokacin da ta tambaye shi abin da yake yi na rayuwa.
  • A cikin waƙar "Game da abokina wanda aka azabtar, Peter" mai ba da labarin ya yi ishara da "kiɗa mai ɓacin rai" dangane da tsananin yanayin.
  • Lokaci-lokaci, Bukowski ya yi amfani da keɓaɓɓun kalmomi, karin magana, da onomatopoeia a cikin waƙoƙinsa.

Jerin Fitattun Wakokin Bukowski

  • Flower, Fist, da Bestial Wail (1960).
  • Gicciye shi a cikin Mutuwa (1965).
  • A Titin Tsoro da Hanyar Azaba (1968).
  • Rubutattun Wakoki Kafin Tsallakewa Daga Taga mai bene 8 (1968).
  • Misalin Bukowski (1969).
  • Kwanaki Suna Gudu Kamar Dawakin Daji Akan Kan Dutse (1969).
  • Wurin Wuta (1970).
  • Mockingbird na Fatan Ni Yayi Sa'a (1972).
  • Konewa a cikin Ruwa, nutsar da Wuta: Zababbun Wakoki 1955-1973 (1974).
  • Wata kila Gobe (1977).
  • Soyayya Kare ne daga Wuta (1977).
  • Yin haɗari a cikin Tournefortia (1981).
  • Yaƙi Duk Lokaci: Wakoki 1981–1984 (1984).
  • Kuna Samun Kadai a Lokaci Wannan Yana Sa hankali (1986).
  • Dakunan Madrigals (1988).
  • Stewagenarian Stew: Labarai & Wakoki (1990).
  • Wakoki mutane (1991).
  • Daren Karshe na Kasidun Duniya (1992).
  • Yin fare akan Muse: Wakoki da Labarai (1996).

Littattafan Bukowski

Mata, na Charles Bukowski.

Mata, na Charles Bukowski.

Kuna iya siyan littafin anan: Mujeres

Yawancinsu suna yin ishara da halayensa na shaye-shaye, da sha'awar caca, da lokutan rashin aikin yi, Ayyuka iri-iri da ya kamata yayi kuma ɗumbin masoya. Kodayake Bukowski ya kuma iya nuna wani bangare mai mahimmanci. Saboda wannan dalili bai sami matsala cikin nutsuwa cikin tattaunawar hasara, soyayya, sahihi, adabi, da waƙa ba.

Jerin litattafan Bukowski

  • Gidan waya (1971).
  • Gaskiya (1975).
  • Women (1978).
  • Ham a kan Rye (1982).
  • Hollywood (1989).
  • ɓangaren litattafan almara (1994).

Jerin Littattafan Bukowski na Shortananan Labarai da tarin su

  • Ikirarin Namiji Mahaukaci Ya isa Ya zauna da Dabbobi (1965).
  • Duk Ruwa a Duniya da Nawa (1966).
  • Bayanan kula da wani dattijo datti (1969).
  • Ayyuka, Hawan jini, Nunin, da Janar Takaitattun Al'adu (1972).
  • Kudancin No Arewa (1973).
  • Kiɗa Mai zafi (1983).
  • Kawo min soyayyar ka (1983).
  • Tatsuniyoyin Talakawan Hauka (1983).
  • Mace Mafi Kyawu a Gari (1983).
  • Tafiya (wanda aka rubuta tare da Jack Micheline da Catfish McDaris) (1997).
  • Rabo daga Littafin rubutu mai ƙaƙƙarfan ruwan inabi: Labarun gajerun labarai da makaloli (2008).
  • Rashin Jarumin (2010).
  • Karin Bayanan kula na Wani dattijo datti (2011).
  • Akan Sha (2019).

Littattafan Bukowski da labaran ban dariya

  • Shakespeare Bai Yi Wannan ba (1979).
  • Haruffa na Bukowski / Purdy (1983).
  • Kururuwa daga baranda: Zaɓaɓɓun Haruffa (1993).
  • Rayuwa akan Sa'a: Zaɓaɓɓun Haruffa, juzu'i. biyu (1995).
  • Kaftin din ya Fito don cin Abinci kuma Masu Jirgin Ruwa Sun Karbi Jirgin Ruwa (1998).
  • Isa ga Rana: Zaɓaɓɓun Haruffa, vol. 3 (1999).
  • Daren Beerspit da Zagi: Labaran Charles Bukowski da Sheri Martinelli (2001).
  • Hasken rana anan nine: Tattaunawa da gamuwa, 1963–1993 (2003).

Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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