Bikin akuya

Mario Vargas Llosa.

Mario Vargas Llosa.

Bikin akuya (2000) labari ne na almara na tarihi wanda shahararren ɗan ƙasar Peru wanda ya ci kyautar Nobel ta Adabi, Mario Vargas Llosa ya rubuta. Makircin ya dogara ne da bayanan tarihi da suka shafi kisan ɗan kama-karya Dominican Rafael Trujillo, kodayake yawancin halayensa ba su wanzu da gaske ba.

ma, ingantaccen sake fasalin abubuwan da suka faru ya ta'allaka ne da tatsuniyoyi guda uku. Na farko ya maida hankali kan Urania Cabral, wata matashiya wacce ta koma Jamhuriyar Dominica don saduwa da mahaifinta mara lafiya. Na biyu yayi bitar kwanakin ƙarshe na rayuwar Trujillo kuma na uku yana mai da hankali ne ga waɗanda suka kashe mai mulkin kama-karya.

Sobre el autor

An haifi Jorge Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa a Arequipa, Peru. Ya zo duniya ne a ranar 28 ga Maris, 1936. Shi kaɗai ne ɗa da auren tsakanin Ernesto Vargas Maldonado da Doña Llosa Ureta. Little Jorge Mario ya kasance farkon lokacin yarintarsa ​​tare da dangin mahaifiyarsa a Cochabamba, Bolivia, saboda iyayensa sun rabu tsakanin 1937 da 1947. A can ya yi karatu a Colegio La Salle.

Bayan ɗan gajeren zama a Piura tare da mahaifiyarsa da kakan mahaifiyarsa, marubucin nan gaba ya koma Lima bayan sulhunta iyayensa. Tare da Mista Ernesto Vargas koyaushe yana kasancewa da dangantaka mai rikitarwa, yayin da mahaifinsa ya yi fushi kuma ya nuna ƙiyayya ga sha'awar ɗabi'ar ɗinsa. A babban birnin Peru ya yi karatu a wata cibiyar kirista.

Ayyukan farko

Lokacin da yake ɗan shekara 14, mahaifinsa ya sanya shi a makarantar koyon aikin soja ta Leoncio Prado, wata makarantar tsauraran matakai da za ta zama matsayin marubuci na nan gaba a cikin littafinsa na farko, Birni da Karnuka (1963). A 1952 ya fara aikin jarida a jaridar Na kullum de Lima a matsayin mai ba da rahoto kuma mai tattaunawa da gida.

Littafinsa na farko na fasaha shine wasan kwaikwayo, Jirgin Inca (1952), wanda aka gabatar a cikin Piura. A wannan garin ya kammala karatun sa a makarantar San Miguel kuma yayi aiki da jaridar kasar Masana'antu. A shekarar 1953 ya fara karatu a fannin shari'a da adabi a jami'ar San Marcos da ke Lima.

Farkon aure da matsawa zuwa Turai

A cikin 1955 ya auri surukarsa siriya Julia Urquidi a asirce (wannan abin kunya ya haifar da abubuwan da aka ruwaito a ciki Anti Julia da magatakarda). Ma'auratan sun sake aure a 1964. A halin yanzu, Vargas Llosa ya kafa - tare da Luis Loayza da Alberto Oquendo— de Littattafan rubutu (1956–57) da kuma ta Mujallar Adabi (1958–59). A 1959 ya yi tafiya zuwa Paris, inda ya yi aiki da Gidan Rediyon Rediyon Faransa.

A waccan shekarar, Vargas Llosa ya buga littafinsa na farko, Shugabannin, tarin labaran. Daga baya, con Birni da Karnuka (1963) marubucin Peruvian ya shiga cikin babban "albarku" na haruffan Latin Amurka tare da "jarumai" García Márquez, Juan Rulfo, Carlos Fuentes, Jorge Luis Borges, Julio Cortázar, Ernesto Sábato da Mario Benedetti.

Tsarkakewa

An ba da izinin nasara Mario Vargas Llosa barin lokacin buƙatun kuɗi, sabili da haka, ya iya ƙaddamar da kansa gaba ɗaya ga rubutu. Sya yi aure a shekarar 1965 tare da yaruwar matarsa ​​ta farko, Patricia Urquidi, wacce ta haifa masa yara uku: Valvaro (1966), Gonzalo (1967) da Morgana (1974). A shekarar 1967, ya koma London, inda ya yi aiki a matsayin malami a Queens Mary College.

A cikin shekarun da suka biyo ya rayu na wani lokaci a Washington sannan daga baya a Puerto Rico. A 1971 ya sami Doctorate a Falsafa da Haruffa a Complutense University of Madrid. Takardunku na digiri, García Márquez, labarin kashe kansa (1971), ya nuna wani ɓangare na aikin gwaninta na Vargas Llosa a matsayin mai sukar adabi.

Tunanin siyasa

A tsawon rayuwarsa, Mario Vargas Llosa ya nuna bambanci sosai a cikin tunaninsa na siyasa. A lokacin samartaka ya kasance mai goyon bayan halayen-kirista mai ra'ayin mazan jiya kuma yana adawa da duk wani mulkin kama-karya. A lokacin shekarun 60 ya sami kusanci sosai game da juyin juya halin Cuban na Che Guevara da Fidel Castro.

A cikin 1971, abin da ake kira “shari’ar Padilla” ta haifar da tabbatacciyar hutu tare da gurguzu. Tuni a shekarun 70s ya fi karkata zuwa sassaucin ra'ayi mai sassaucin ra'ayi kuma ya zama ɗan takarar shugabancin Peru. Alberto Fujimori ya kayar da shi a zaben 1990.

Ayyukansa a cikin lambobi

A cikin 1993, Vargas Llosa ya lashi tutar Spain. Bayan shekara guda aka shigar dashi makarantar Royal Spanish Academy. Har zuwa kwanan wata, Aikinsa ya hada da litattafai 19, littattafan labarai 4, littattafan waƙoƙi 6, rubutun adabi 12 da wasan kwaikwayo 10, a tsakanin sauran littattafan jarida., shirin gaskiya, fassara, hirarraki, jawabai da kuma abubuwan tuni.

Mafi mahimmancin yabo da kyaututtuka

Wani labarin daban kawai za'a iya yin bayani akan ayyukan da aka yiwa Mario Vargas Llosa a Latin Amurka. Kodayake, ba tare da wata shakka ba, manyan abubuwan da suka faru a yau sune:

  • Kyautar Yariman Asturias na Adabi (1986).
  • Kyautar Miguel de Cervantes (1994).
  • Kyautar Nobel a cikin Adabi (2010).
  • Doctorate Honoris Kasa:
    • Jami'ar Ibrananci ta Urushalima. Isra'ila (1990).
    • Kwalejin Queens Mary na Jami'ar London. Kingdomasar Ingila (1990).
    • Kwalejin Connecticut. Amurka (1990).
    • Jami'ar Boston. Amurka (1990).
    • Jami'ar Harvard. Amurka (1999).
    • Magajin garin Universidad de San Marcos. Peru (2001).
    • Pedro Ruiz Gallo Jami'ar Kasa. Peru (2002).
    • Jami'ar Simon Bolivar. Kasar Venezuela (2008).
    • Jami'ar Tokyo. Kasar Japan (2011).
    • Jami'ar Cambridge. Kingdomasar Ingila (2013).
    • Jami'ar Burgos. Spain (2015).
    • Jami'ar Diego Portales. Chile (2016).
    • Jami'ar Lima. Peru (2016).
    • Jami'ar Kasa ta San Agustín de Arequipa. Peru (2016).

Analysis of Bikin akuya

Bikin akuya.

Bikin akuya.

Kuna iya siyan littafin anan: Babu kayayyakin samu.

Abubuwa

A hukumance, Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina ya kasance mai mulkin kama-karya na Jamhuriyar Dominica tsakanin 1930 - 1938 da 1942 - 1952. A zahiri, Trujillo ya riƙe ainahin iko kusan shekaru 31 (har zuwa kashe shi a 1961). Dangane da wannan, akwai kamantaccen misali tare da waƙar merengue "Sun kashe akuya", wanda Vargas Llosa ya ambata a farkon littafin. Saboda haka sunan littafin.

Alamu

Rashin ikon kama-karya

A cikin littafin, Trujillo yana nuna halin ɓacin rai game da jikinsa da al'adunsa na yau da kullun (tsabtar jiki, kayan ɗamara, hanyar da ta dace)… Haka kuma, don sake tabbatar da matsayinsa, shugaban ya kan ɗauki mata da dangin mambobin gwamnatinsa.

Sabili da haka, lokacin da mai son farauta ya fara nuna alamun rashin daidaituwa da rashin ƙarfi na jima'i, yana ganin wannan yanayin a matsayin rauni ga mutuncinsa da mulkin sa. Yana da ƙari, rashin karfin erectile yana kiran tambayarsa game da kansa (mai ceton "alpha male" na kasar).

Cikin rikitarwa

Halin Augusto Cabral ba zai iya amsa tambayoyin da 'yarsa ta yi ba. Wannan tsallakewa wakiltar mahimmancin haɗin gwiwar ɓangare na uku don haɓaka kowane mulkin kama-karya. Saboda haka, Don Augusto bai iya ba da hujjar zaluncin Trujillo ko rashin adalci ba, kafin da bayan mutuwar mai mulkin kama-karya.

Gidan gidan Cabral

Gidan dangin Cabral yana nuni da lalacewar wata ƙasa mai ɗaukaka wacce shekaru da yawa na zalunci ya ruguje ta. Wancan gidan inuwar gidan da Uraniya take zaune a yarinta, wuri ne da ya lalace kamar lafiyar mai shi.

Urania Cabral

Urania wakiltar wata ƙasa ce baki ɗaya da ta fusata shekaru talatin da Trujillo. Ita, wacce ke alfahari da kiyaye mutuncinta a gaban iyalinta, mahaifinta ya mika shi ga mai mulkin kama-karya a matsayin wata hanya ta nuna amincinsa. Duk da bacin ran da ya sha, a karshen labarin Urania ta yanke shawarar sake kulla alaka da iyalinta. Wanne, alama ce ta fatan sasanta wata ƙasa.

'Yan matan Mirabal

Waɗannan 'yan'uwa mata ba su bayyana kai tsaye a cikin labarin ba, amma suna wakiltar ƙarfin juriyar mata ga ƙiyayya. Sun zama shahidai bayan da gwamnatin ta kashe su saboda matsayin su na shugabannin dalibai. A saboda wannan dalili, waɗanda suka riga suka ƙulla makircin da ya ƙare da mutuwar Trujillo yana tuna su a matsayin jarumai.

Paradoxes

Vargas Llosa ya bayyana manyan rikice-rikicen da ke faruwa a cikin wata gurɓatacciyar ƙasa, inda ‘yan siyasanta za su yi komai don tsira. Wannan abin faɗi ne a cikin labarin fushin da Urania Cabral ya sha. Wane ne ya yi alƙawarin kasancewa budurwa idan Trujillo ya gafarta wa mahaifinta, amma mahaifinta ya yanke shawarar miƙa ta ga mai mulkin kama-karya don ya sami gafara.

Hakazalika, Joaquín Balaguer - wanda aka fi sani da "shugaban 'yar tsana" - ya sami damar tserewa ba tare da hukunci ba bayan mutuwar azzalumi (duk da cewa yana da kusanci da tsarin mulki). A zahiri, Balaguer babban jigo ne a cikin sarrafa iyalin Trujillo da inganta miƙa mulki ga dimokiradiyya.

Makircin

In ji Mario Vargas Llosa.

In ji Mario Vargas Llosa.

Don cika kisan Trujillo, halartar membobin gwamnati da yawa ya zama dole. Bayan haka, hatta manyan jami'an mulki suna son faduwar mai mulkin kama-karya. Da kyau, babu wanda ya so ya fadada halin da ake ciki da ta'addanci na jihar da aka kafa ta hanyar ayyukan sirri da ke kula da murkushe duk wata alamar makirci.

Wasu sanannun kalmomi

  • "Ya zama dole a ruwa mutumin da dukkan zaren wancan gidan yanar gizo mai duhu suka hadu a cikinsa" (shafi na 174).
  • "Trujillismo gida ne na kati" (shafi na 188).
  • "Wannan ita ce siyasa, yin hanyarku ta hanyar gawawwaki" (shafi na 263).

Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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  1.   Gustavo Woltmann ne adam wata m

    Na karanta ayyuka da yawa daga Vargas Llosa, marubuci ne na ƙwarai, labaransa suna jan hankali. Ban sami farin cikin karanta Fiesta del Chivo ba, amma na yi, kuma da wannan labarin a zuciya ina tsammanin zan so yin hakan.
    - Gustavo Woltmann.

bool (gaskiya)